Chapter 1-introduction Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 1-introduction Deck (56):
1

sensation

the ability to detect a stimulus and, perhaps, to turn that detection into a private experience, getting info in

2

perception

act of giving meaning to a detected sensation, internal endpoint, manifestation

3

transduction

conversion, neural energy

4

who studies sensations and perceptions

multidisciplinary-psychology, biology, computer science, linguists, etc.

5

study of sensations and perceptions is a _____ pursuit and requires _____ methods

scientific

6

thresholds

finding the limits of what can be perceived, tool

7

scaling

measuring private experience, report of "more" or "less"
are your qualia (private experiences) the same as others

8

signal detection theory

decision making in the presence of noise (neuronoise, external noise)

9

sensory neuroscience

the biology of sensation and perception, sensory receptors and nerves

10

neuroimaging

image of the mind, tool

11

relationship between mind and body using math-who?

Fechner

12

psychophysics

the science of defining quantitative relationships between physical and psychological (subjective) events

13

perceive motion/change with more or less luminance

high

14

psychophysics example

2 point touch threshold

15

just noticeable difference

smallest detecable difference between 2 stimuli, or the minimum change in a stimulus that can be correctly judged as different from a reference stimulus. are they the same or different?

16

another term for JND

difference threshold

17

absolute threshold

minimum amount of stimulation necessary for a person to detect stimulus 50% of the time

18

is the absolute threshold fixed

no, varies slightly based on noise (neural, sensory)

19

who discovered that they smallest change in astimulus that can be detected is a constant proportion of the stimulus level

Ernst Weber

20

Weber's law

the principle describing the relationship between stimulus and resulting sensation that says the JND is a constant fraction of the comparison stimulus

21

JND example

lifting weights, 1 stays the same while the other increases. better at detecting a difference when the standard weight is lighter

22

what stimulus values have larger JNDs?
what stimulus values have smaller JNDs?

larger
smaller

23

weber's law is constant ____ difference

relative; fraction 1:100

24

as the stimulus increases, need to ____ different weights to detect difference

increase

25

method of constant stimuli

many stimuli, ranging from rarely to almost always perceivable, are presented one at a time. controlled by researcher
show stimuli equal number of times

26

method of adjustment

participant controls the stimulus directly, increasing or decreasing values until it switches between being perceivable and not perceivable. subjective, spend more time in the middle

27

magnitude estimation

participant assigns values according to perceived magnitudes of the stimuli

28

stevens power law

describes the relationship between stimulus and resulting sensation; describes magnitude estimates

29

sevens power law formula

S=aI^b

S=scaling strength
I=stimulus intensity
^b=exponent, depend on type of stimulus
a=personal/subjective scaling, varied from person to person

30

magnitude

present stimuli, rate on scale

31

y=x^b, what happens to JND if
b>1
b=1
0

JND shrinks
JND is constant absolute difference
Webers law-JND is constant relative difference

32

signal detection theory

the brains response to a stimulus is variable; quantifies response of observer to the presentation of a signal in the presence of noise

33

criterion for signal

decisions on the presence or absence of a stimulus or for same or different judgments use criteria; internal threshold set by the observer; changing it changes the hits and false alarms

34

receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC curve)

graphical plotting of hit rate as a function of false alarm rate

35

doctrine of specific nerve energies

formulated by johannes muller stating that the nature of sensation depends on WHICH sensor fibers are stimulated, not how they are stimulated

36

polysensory areas

information from several senses combined

37

synapse

junction between neurons that permits information transfer

38

neurotransmitter

chemical substance used in neuronal communicatino at synapses

39

EPSP

excitatory postsynaptic potential, causes action potential

40

IPSP

inhibitory postsynaptic potential, inhibits the action potential

41

layout of neuron

D -dendrite
C -cell
B body
A -axon
Synapse
D
C
B
A

42

action potential

depolarize axon with Na+
EPSP depolarized, less different from 0
IPSP hyperpolarized, more different from 0

43

electroencephalography (EEG)
space resolution
time resolution
invasive?

technique that, using many electrodes on the scalp, measures electrical activity from populations of many neurons in the brain
low
high (ms)
no

44

event related potential (ERP)

measure of electrical activity from a subpopulation of neurons in response to particular stimulus that requires AVERAGING many EEG recordings

45

computerized tomography (CT)
space resolution
time resolution
invasive?

imaging technology that uses xrays to create images of slices through volumes of material, structural
high
very low (years)
no

46

functional magnetic resonance imaging(fMRI)
space resolution
time resolution
invasive?

variant of MRI that makes it possible to measure localized patterns of activity in the brain. activated neurons provoke increased blood flow, which can be quantivied by measuring changed of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood to strong magnetic fields
medium
medium (sec)
no

47

lesion
space resolution
time resolution
invasive?

high/med
low (before/after)
very

48

single unit
space resolution
time resolution
invasive?

Electrophysiology, what neurons are doing
very high
very high (ms)
yes

49

clinical
space resolution
time resolution
invasive?

med
low (before/after)
yes

50

sense: sight/vision
stimulus info
receptor type
brain area

light/photons
photoreceptor
occipital lobe

51

sense: touch/somatosensation
stimulus info
receptor type
brain area

temperature, pressure/vibration
thermoreceptor, mechanoreceptor, nociceptor
parietal lobe

52

sense: hearing/audition
stimulus info
receptor type
brain area

sound/pressure wave
mechanoreceptor
temporal lobe

53

sense: taste/gestation
stimulus info
receptor type
brain area

chemicals
chemoreceptor
insular cortex

54

sense: smell/olfaction
stimulus info
receptor type
brain area

odor molecules
chemoreceptor
piriform cortex

55

sense: vestibuluar/balance orientation
stimulus info
receptor type
brain area

fluid pressure
mechanoreceptor
cerebellum, temporal lobe

56

sense: proprioception
stimulus info
receptor type
brain area

muscle and joint stretch/pressure
mechanoreceptor
cerebellum, parietal lobe