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Flashcards in chapter 7-attention and scene perception Deck (57):
1

attention

any of the very large set of selective processes in the brain

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to deal with the impossibility of handing all inputs at once, nervous system has evolved mechanisms that are able to ___ processing to a subset of things, places, ideas, or moments in time

restrict

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selective attention

form of attention involved when processing is restricted to subset of possible stimuli; process some things but not others

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what guides selective attention

whats important to you; endogenous, exogenous

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endogenous

internal, symbolic

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exogenous

external, peripheral

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overt

directing sense organ at simulus

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covert

focus eyes on one point while directing attention elsewhere

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acuity variation

due to variation in receptive field size and cone density, usually what we are fixating on is what dominates our attention and brain processing

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receptive field size and cone density; ___ resolution for things we look at ____

high, directly

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top down processing

endogenous; thoughts, goals, knowledge; higher cognition

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effects of top down processing

intentional control of switching, influenced by prior knowledge (initial impression wont switch unless you know about both)

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necker cube

designed to look like a cube, no shading to say whats the front or whats the back

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perceptual state

high level vision

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bottom up processing

exogenous; local receptive fields, neural activation; low level and middle vision

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bottom up influence

local mutual inhibition (visual system makes choice for you), neural adaptation (1st view strength decreases over time)

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is attention spatially constrained or object oriented

both

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spatial attention

move around a spotlight that involves greater processing of a location in space, even other than what you are looking at; other nearby things get attention

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object based attention

you are processing something of interest, even if it moves; object properties will be given attention

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ambiguous stimuli

show effects of top top processing and include bottom up influence

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reaction time

measure of the time from the onset of a stimulus to a response

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cue

a stimulus that might indicate where (or what) a subsequent stimulus will be

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cues can be valid (__ info), invalid (__ info), or neutral (__)

correct, incorrect, uninformative

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RT decreases with __ cue

valid

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RT increases with __ cue

invalid

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posner cuing paradigm

measure reaction time to stimuli;

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stimulus onset asynchrony (soa)

time between onset of 1 stimulus and onset of another

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inhibition of return

relative difficulty in getting attention to move back to recently attended location

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behavioral cuing results

faster and more accurate for cued location;

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physiological cuing results

ERP, shows different magnitude responses depending on contralateral and ipsilateral brain locations

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example of object based attention

multiple object tracking

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with multiple object tracking

can distribute attention to different objects

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constraints of multiple object tracking

limited number of objects that you can accurately track, temporal limit-the faster they move the less you can track

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visual search

looking for a target in a display containing distracting elements

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target

goal of a visual search

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distractor

in visual search, any stimulus other than the target

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set size

number of items in a visual search display (iv, RT is dv)

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feature search

parallel search; independent of distractors, low level; efficient, salience; RT doesn't change with set size

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conjunction search

serial search; as number of distractors increase, takes longer to find; need top down unification or local vision attention to combine the factors; presence of 2 or more attributes

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spatial configuration search

arrangement of elements in 3D space

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how does attention work in terms of neural activity

response enhancement, sharper tuning, altered tuning

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response enhancement

orientation tuning of neuron, prefer 1 over the other, change in threshold and response in single neuron; bigger response

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sharper tuning

focus on some orientations and less than others, change in interaction between neurons, more mutual inhibition; more precise response

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altered tuning

changed preference of orientation, change in receptive field input or different pattern of mutual inhibition

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attention to specific part of the visual field causes neurons coding those locations to have __ activity

increased

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increased activation detected using

fMRI (good spatial resolution); enhance/increase in what you pay attention to

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single cell recording shows attention effects where

LGN

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how could attention alter tuning of a receptive field

receptive fields of neurons are not completely fixed and can change in response to attentional demands

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how do we perceive and understand scenes

selective and non-selective pathways

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nonselective pathway processes what

scene gist and layout

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spatial layout

description of the structure of a scene without reference to the identity of specific objects in a scene (openness and expansion), attention bottleneck

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memory for objects and scenes is

good and bad

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brady et al. performed task with subjects looking at 2500 objects in the training phase and then chose which of two they had seen in test phase

different types of categories - 92%
different examples within category- 88%
same object, different states- 87%
unintended memory

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change blindness

failure to notice change between 2 scenes; if the change doesn not change gist of the scene probably wont notice

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mask present

treat as 2 different images, huge transient signal

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mask abent

local motion signal, local transient signal

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inattentional blindness

failure to notice, or at least report, stimulus that would be reportable if attended