chapter 15-taste Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in chapter 15-taste Deck (45):
1

neural signals conveyed to brain by taste nerves and occurs where

taste buds

2

papillae

bumps on tongue, embedded in structures

3

each taste bud contains

taste receptor cells

4

info sent to brain from taste buds via

cranial nerves

5

different papillae classified by

size, shape, location

6

microvilli

slender projections of the cell membrane on the tips of some taste bud cells that extend in to the taste pore

7

receptor cells are grouped into about 10,000 taste buds, that each have how man receptor cells

50-150

8

life span of taste receptors

10 days

9

sweet tastes where on tongue

tip-fungiform

10

bitter tastes where on tongue

back-circumvallate

11

salty tastes where on tongue

throughout

12

sour tastes where on tongue

sides-foliate

13

tastant

any stimulus that can be tasted

14

tastants can be divided into how many categories

2

15

salty or sour tastes made of

small, charged particles

16

small ion channels in ___ membranes allow some types of charge particles to enter but not others

microvilli

17

tastants that taste sweet or bitter are perceived using what receptors

g protein coupled receptors

18

salty ion channels

based on concentrations of cations

19

sour ion channels

based on the degree of acidity

20

bitter taste receptors

diff or multiple types of receptors, all result in bitterness; don't distinguish between tastes of different bitter compounds, sensitive to a range of chemicals

21

sweet taste receptors

single receptor responsible for all sweet perception

22

infants behavior and facial expressions reveal innate ____ for certain foods

preferences

23

different flavored foods placed on tips of infants tongues

sweet produces smile
sour produces pursed lips
bitter produces gaping, spitting, vomiting movements
survival value

24

specific hunger theory

drawn to certain food when our body lacks them

25

umami

monosodium glutamate

26

safety issues in human consumption for MSG

numbness, headache, flushing, tingling, sweating, and tightness in the chest if sensitive individuals consume a large amount

27

why is umami not a basic taste

no specific glutamate receptors i the mouth, requires swallowing for learned associations, receptors in your gut that do this

28

we taste different things by coding with

labeled line

29

theory of taste coding in which each taste fiber carries a particular taste quality like what other theory

specific nerve energy; taste like which receptors are activated

30

other possibility of coding taste

patterns of activity across many different taste neurons

31

specific tastes for a specific foods are a ____ across taste receptor types

combo

32

population coding allows for

distinctiveness

33

PTC tastes different to different people

bitter to some, but not others

34

nontasters

individuals with two recessive genes

35

supertaster

individual who is a taster of PTC/PROP and has a high density of fungiform papillae-perceives the most intense taste sensations

36

genetic variants of supertasters

more receptor cells, stronger reactions

37

connection between taste and smell: brain imaging studies

brain processes odors differently depending on whether they come from nose or mouth

38

food industry adds sugar to intensify sensation of fruit juice

increase in sweetness increases perceived olfactory sensation of fruit, increasing color can increase flavor sensation

39

liking/hedonics occurs where

frontal lobe (orbitofrontal)-combo of senses for liking

40

flavor

the combination of true taste and retronasal olfaction

41

true taste

sweet, salty, sour, bitter

42

retronasal olfactory sensation

the sensation of an odor that is perceived when chewing and swallowing force an odorant in the mouth up behind the palate into the nose

43

taste processing in the brain occurs where

insular cortex and orbitofrontal cortex

44

insular cortex

primary cortical processing area for taste

45

orbitofrontal cortex

part of the frontal lobe of the cortex that lies above the bone containing the eyes, response for hedonic perception