chapter 11-music and speech perception Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in chapter 11-music and speech perception Deck (60):
1

musical notes

sounds of music extend across a frequency range from about 25 to 4500 Hz (range we're most sensitive to)

2

pitch

the psychological aspect of sounds related mainly to the fundamental frequency; the perceptual connection of frequency

3

octave

the interval between two sound frequencies having a ratio of 2:1; relationship between frequency

4

example of octave

perceive doubling as higher, but its still the same thing; mathematical relationship

5

tone height

the sound quality corresponding to the level of pitch, monotonically related to frequency

6

chords

created when three or more notes with different pitches are played simultaneously

7

consonant chords

have simple ratios of note frequencies; 2:1, 3:2 (perfect 5th), 4:3

8

dissonant chords

less elegant ratios of note frequencies; complex ratios, 16:15, 45:32

9

cultural differences in chords

western: heptatonic
javanese: pentatonic, fewer notes

10

infants and octaves

can detect inappropriate notes on both scales, culturally learned

11

melody

arrangement of notes or chords in succession; twinkle twinkle little star

12

a melody is not a sequence of specific sounds but a ___ between successive notes

relationship

13

melodies can change ___ or keys and still be the same

octaves

14

tempo

the perceived speed of the presentation of sounds

15

rhythm

repeated pattern; humans are natural rhythm detectors

16

bolton experiments

sequence of identical sounds, perfectly spaced in time, but no rhythm; listeners reported hearing first sound of group as accented, while the rest remain unaccented; humans will put rhythm in naturally

17

syncopation

deviating from the regular rhythm

18

complex sounds of music (__ created by changing frequencies over time) are processed where

melodies; belt and parabelt regions

19

music in the limbic system

amygdala-fear/emotion
hippocampus-memory formation/retrieval

20

music can trigger

memories and motor patterns

21

mental movies occur in

medial prefrontal cortex

22

dance moves occur in

lateral premotor cortex

23

humans are capable of producing many speech sounds

5000 different languages, over 850 different speech sounds

24

vocal tract

the airway above the larynx used for the production of speech; flexibility is important in speech production

25

3 concepts of speech production

respiration, phonation, articulation

26

respiration

lungs, push air out

27

phonation

process through which vocal folds are made to vibrate when air pushes out of the lungs; vocal cords, produce the basic aspects

28

articulation

the act or manner of producing a speech sound using the vocal tract (mouth, tongue)

29

resonance characteristics of articulation created by

changing size and shape of vocal tracts to affect sound frequency distribution

30

formants

peaks in speech spectrum; resonance of the vocal tract, specified by their center frequency and denoted by integers that increase with relative frequency peaks in the speech spectrum

31

formants are labeled by number from lowest to highest

concentrations in energy occur at different frequencies, depending on length of vocal tract

32

spectrogram

pattern for sound analysis that provides a 3D display plotting time on the horizontal axis, frequency on the vertical axis, and intensity in color or grey scale; speech is messy but brain cleans it up

33

categorical perception

for speech and other complex sounds and images, the phenomenon by which the discrimination of items is no better than the ability to label items; categorical boundaries

34

researchers can manipulate sound stimuli to vary from bah to dah to gah

however, people perceive sharp categorical boundaries between them

35

F1 is always

ascending

36

F2 is ___ for bah, ___ for dah, and ___ for gah

ascending, descending, descening

37

F3 is __ for bah, ___ for dah, and ___ for gah

ascending, descending, ascending

38

F2 and F3 for bah, dah, gah

F2: ascending, descending, descending
F3: ascending, descending, ascending

39

coarticulation

the phenomenon in speech whereby attributes of successive speech units overlap in articulatory or acoustic patterns; position tongue etc in preparation for next word

40

spectral contrast

accentuation the difference between the formants now and those that precede them

41

perception of coarticulated speech is explained by fundamental ways auditory system enhances ___ between successive sounds

contrast

42

contrast enhancement is a general property of ___ and occurs in many forms

perception; how you perceive the presence of 2 sounds

43

both ascending corarticulation sounds

bah

44

both descending coarticulation sounds

dah

45

mcgurk effect

what someone sees can affect what they hear; cue combination

46

cue combination

formants have ambiguity, other things influence speech thats produced, reliability matters to discriminate cues

47

learning to listen comes from

experience; preferences

48

becoming a native listener

sound distinctions are specific to various languages

49

r and l are not distinguished in

japan

50

if not exposed to speech sounds as they grow

babies lose ability to distinguish between them

51

learn where one word ends and another beings by

exposure

52

speech: brain damage follows patterns of

blood vessles

53

what scans help to learn about speech processing

PET and fMRI

54

what parts of brain are active when listening to peech

left and right superior temporal lobes

55

as sounds get more complex, what regions of the brain are activated

anterior and ventral regions of superior temporal lobe

56

speech has a bias for what hemisphere

left

57

electrical recordings are taken only when

before surgery

58

neural responses in brain ___ behavioral responses by the subjects

matched

59

sounds that people labeled as the same had ___ neural response

same

60

sounds that people labeled as different had ___ neural response

different