Chapter 1 - PREMIDTERM Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 1 - PREMIDTERM Deck (24):
1

How old was big bang

12-18 billion years

2

How old is solar system

5/6 billion

3

How old are planets

5-4.6 billion

4

How old is earth

4.6 Billion

5

What is solar nebula theory?

According to solar nebula theory, condensation of gass resulted in counter clockwise rotation disk of gases and materials. 90% of material formed center, things on outside were called solar nebula

6

How did earth form? How did earth get its core?

-smaller planets orbited earth at first
-planets grew through series of collisions
-collision between earth and another object (+ heat of collision) gave earth its iron core

7

What is co-accretion?

Hypothesis of how moon came.
-moon accreted at same time as earth through collisions

8

What is capture theory?

Moon formed somewhere else in solar system but came close enough to earth to be caught by its gravitational pull and remained in orbit

9

What is fission theory

earth spun so fast that the moon split off from it, but didn't get enough speed to leave gravitational pull

10

What is giant impact theory?

Moon was created by theia hitting earth

11

What is theia?

Giant body that was hypothesized to hit earth, creating moon

12

How are waves created? (where does force come from?)

Moon

13

Is moon coming towards us or further away

Further away

14

What is the most probable hypothesis of the creation of the moon? Why is this the most probable cause?
Least probable cause? Rank probables causes in order

Theia / Giant impact hypothesis
-the one where theia, giant body, hit earth, creating moon.
-most probable from data of core, composition of moon
FROM MOST PROBABLE TO LEAST PROBABLE
Giant impact, fission, capture, co-accretion

15

When the earth was created, what was it mainly made out of? what type of material?

Silicates

16

How did segregation of earths materials work when earth was first created (by impact)?


Early earth was mainly silicates
Lightest material stays on the outside, heaviest material goes to the centre, thus creating the mantle and crust (gravitational segregation)
The impact gave earth more iron and nickel to the earth's core
Gravitational compression, meteorite impact and radioactive decay increased earth's temperature and was hot enough to melt the iron and the nickel. While the silicate material went up. This segregated to the centre and thus the homogeneous layer disappeared and there were different layers.

17

What are terrestrial planets?

inner planets

18

What are jovian planets?

Outer planets

19

How many comets hit Jupiter every year?

Gravitational force of Jupiter prevented comets barraging it

20

Principles of uniformitarianism

Uniformity of: Laws of nature
Processes
rate
state

21

Principles of uniformitarianism: exceptions

-earths rotation has slowed
-atmospheric composition
-continents and oceans -movement due to plat tectonics
-colonization of land by plants -and animals

22

What are cycles? Give some examples

Continuous, no beginning and end
-consists of reservoirs, storage tanks

23

Is earth a closed system?

Earth is considered a closed system compared to universe

24

What are subsystems of earth? are they open or closed systems?

Atmosphere
lithosphere
biosphere
hydrosphere
-all open systems, but earth is a closed system compared to solar system