Global climate 1 - Glaciers and Glaciation Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Global climate 1 - Glaciers and Glaciation Deck (29):
1

Define glacier ice:

Metamorphic rock that consists of interlocking crystals of the mineral ice, and that owes its characteristics to deformation under the weight of the over burden
-this shows that metamorphic doesn't just mean hot, its deformation under weight
-he worded this definition this way because it applies to all metamorphic rocks
ex) quartzite is a metamorphic rock that consists of interlocking crystals of the mineral quartz……

2

Define Glacier

Permanent body of glacier ice, consisting largely of recrystallized snow, which shows evidence of downslope or outward movement due to gravity

3

Formation of glaciers; where (think altitude)

Form at or above snow line, near sea level in high altitudes, up to 6k meters in tropics

4

Why is ice colorless? Or is it bue?

-snow recrystallizes (melting and freezing) to ice under the weight of the overburden, and as a result of melting and freezing ice has no colour
-NOT BLUE, blue color from refraction and reflection

5

Describe the movement of glaciers

Downslope movement due to gravity via combination of;
-sliding at grain boundaries
-sliding at cleavage planes
-recrystallization
-basal sliding on meltwater

6

Velocity of glaciers; WITHIN ICE

Velocity is highest near top; few cm to m per day

7

Direction and velocity of terminus (toe or end of glacier)

Move up OR downslope, depending on mass balance
-few cm to m per year, 2 order of magnitude difference in comparison to ice

8

What are the 6 types of glaciers


6 types of glaciers:
1)Ice cap/ ice field ex. Columbian glacier (like a cap)
2)Cirque glacier (low in altitude, melts on he outer parts.. Its kind of a circle)
3)Valley glacier , carves out a valley
4)Fjord.. Kind of like a valley glacier big bigger, the glacier is melting in the sea
5)Piedmont glacier: several glaciers merging together
6)Ice sheet.. Orders of magnitudes larger (Antarctica, and Greenland)… 3km thick

9

How much % of ice is covered by the most abundant glacier type, and what is the glacier type? When totally melted, how high would sea levels rise?

95%, ICE SHEETS
-global sea levels would rise 66m

10

What are the two most important aspects about ice?

1) Density = 0.9 g/cm^3 (abnormal b/c lower density than liquid aka water, so it floats on water b/c difference in density is ~10%, thus glacier is 10% above water, 90% in water)
2) Melting SEA ICE does not raise sea level
-only continental ice does, this is b/c ice takes up more space tan water (less dense, less compact)

11

Ice in permafrost distribution

Distribution:
- >>60 degrees latitude
-max depth 1500m
Covers 20% of earth's surface, -majority of it is below
-Melting of permafrost will do 2 things because there are 2 things in permafrost
1)ICE - will raise sea levels few more meters
2)Frozen methane in permafrost, will raise temperature when melted

12

Define solifluction

gradual movement of wet soil or other material down a slope, especially where frozen subsoil acts as a barrier to the filtering of water

13

Life cycle of a glacier, using valley glacier as an example

-Zone of accumulation in upland area. This is where snow accumulates
-at terminus, this is where it melts (opposite of accumulation), this is called ablation
-equilibrium line in the middle, where accumulation and ablation are the same

14

Annual mass balance

-Thru the whole calandar year, you accumulate a lot of ice from snow fall (accumulation, at back of glacier)
-now ablation, melting snow, loses some some ice
-so then the balance is the Accumulation - Ablation. The peak of the balance is at the end of the winter, when the sum of accumulation is highest, and right before ablation just starts to pick up (summer)

15

Are glaciers increasing or retreating? Include facts

1) About 70-85% of glaciers worldwide (regionally variable) have been retreating since ~1850. This means the mass balance is negative (more ablation than accumulation)
2) The retreat has been accelerating dramatically since ~1980

16

Give examples of retreating glaciers

1) 1980 - 2012, Columbia glacier, Alaska retreated 30km
2) Athabasca glacier, alberta

17

What is Roche Mountonee

The when ice plucks away at the underlying substrait.. We get ridges.. The materials that gets plucked out gets carried with the ice and it carves the ground while it moves
When they scrape the ground.. They leave striations that we can use to determine the movement of the glaciers
Only ice can cut through stuff that makes a nice cleavage plane on mountains

18

What are glacial valleys and fjords. What shape are they

Mountain area encounters glaciation, after glacier leaves, they leave U shaped glacial trough called glacial falleys/fjords.
-we can use these to determine where a glacier used to be

19

Define Till and outwash
GLACIAL DRIFT = GLACIAL DEPOSIT (match the following glacial drifts with the deposits they leave behind)

Till = ....
Outwash = ...

Till: material carried away from a glacier by ice
Outwash: material carried away from a glacier by meltwater

Till:
-unstratified(not layered), deposited BY ICE
-moraines
-erratics
-dropstones
NOTE: TILL RESULTS IN THE CREATION OF THE ROCK TILLITE


Outwash =
-stratified(layered), deposited by MELTWATER
-varved lake deposits

20

What is a moraine
What is a terminal moraine
What rock is found here? (with this process)

Moraine is a mass of rocks and sediment carried down and deposited by a till (ice part of glacier)

Terminal moraine:
moraine deposited at the point of furthest advance of a glacier or ice sheet

NOTE: Moraine is the landform, tillite is the rock, till is the ice part of glacier

21

What is a erratic

Individual large boulders, deposited from a glacier (ice part aka till)

22

What is a dropstone

Ice floats away with stones on them, when the ice melts, the stone drop
-we will find lakes deposited with random dropstones

23

What are eskers

elongated ridges of boulders

24

What is Edmonton built on?

A glacial deposit

25

When was the last glacial maximum (ICE AGE) ??

18000 - 21000 years ago

26

when was the first ice age

Proterozoic

27

WHAT does SNOWBALL EARTH LOOK LIKE. When was this

Entire globe was frozen except for volcanic areas
750-580 m.y ago

28

What is considered a hotspot in the arctic

8 and a half degrees

29

Projected temperature of a very hot zone is:

+4 degrees from preindustrial
+3 degrees from today
this means that we have warmed 1 degree so far from preindustrial