Chapter 18 - Organic evolution; the theorgy and its supporting evidence Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 18 - Organic evolution; the theorgy and its supporting evidence Deck (31):

Define life

living organisms undergo metabolism, maintain homeostasis, possess a capacity to grow, respond to stimuli, reproduce, and through natural selection, adapt to their environment in successive generations
(key words: metabolism, homeostasis (regulation), growth, reproduction


Define species

A Species
is a group of actually or potentially interbreeding individuals
that do not interbreed with other interbreeding groups, and that produce
fertile offspring.


Reproductive barrier;
courtship behaviour

like a peacock shows its tail to other pea hens, attracting them, but it doesn’t work for other species


Reproductive barrier;
mating apparatus

example, penis of one big dog would be too big for vagina of other smaller dog


Reproductive barrier;
egg-sperm incompatibility

that is all


Reproductive barrier;
infertile offspring

horse + donkey can mate and make a mule, but a mule is infertile, so u cant have a generation of mules, so a mule can never be a species


Reproductive barrier;
geographic dislocation

a place like galapogos islands, are quite a distance away from nearest mainland


Reproductive barrier;
psychological barriers

liger/ligon: lion and tiger mate, but usually tigers and lions hate each other. So they have psychological barriers that stop them from mating, although they can breed


What is allopatric speciation via geographic dislocation

occurs when a new species evolves from a small population that become isolated from its parent population


Define phylogenetic tree

or evolutionary tree is a branching diagram or "tree" showing the inferred evolutionary relationships among various biological species or other entities—their phylogeny—based upon similarities and differences in their physical or genetic characteristics.
-traditionally,y the tree has 2 main branches; plants and animals


What is? Linean classification
Name them

--system of classification according to shared characteristics into fixed categories--
Species - genus - family - order - class - phylum - kingdom - domain


How we name subspecies:

genus species subspeceis
-so, for humans, it would be homo sapiens sapiens
-our genus is homo, our species is sapiens (human) and our subspecies ('races')


define hillis plot

Search Results

A Hillis Plot is a circular diagram that shows the evolutionary relationship between all different life forms. The largest Hillis Plot incorporates about 3,000 species.


two theories of origin of life;

Creation - all life was created as stated in the bible, no evolution
Evolution - life originated from lifeless chemicals, first primitive life forms evolved to more complex life forms


Theory of evolution and convergence of evidence,
and who came up with theory of evolution

top example of all of sciences for convergence of evidence
-CHARLES darwin came up with theory



Sequential morpholigical changees among related life forms through time (dinosaurs --> birds)

ex) wings that look similar:No way to explain this either than a common ancestor


PROOF OF THEORY OF EVOLUTION; homologous structures

similar structures, like humans and cats both have legs.
-homologous strucutres may serve different functions, bt all are composed of same bones, all have similar arangement with respect to other structures


vestigal body parts

all the whales have a remnant of a femur in their body.. They don’t need a pelvic bone, but their ancestor had a pelvic bone.. They are there.. But they have no function


PROOF OF THEORY OF EVOLUTION; similarities between embryos of various texa

all of the embryos look identical initially, then they begin to differentiate through the gestation period.. Only possible if they have a common ancestor originally.


PROOF OF THEORY OF EVOLUTION; Microbial origin of humans
also define cell biology endosymbiosis

endosymbiosis theory:Symbiogenesis,
or endosymbiotic theory, is an evolutionary theory that explains the origin of eukaryotic cells from prokaryotes. It states that several key organelles of eukaryotes originated as a symbiosis between separate single-celled organisms.
-we are nothing but a pile of microbes, and that is mostly evident in the digestive system



-same 22 amino acids in all life forms
-nucleic acids (DNA) in all life forms
-similarities between enzymes l
-enzymes permitting calculation of phylogenetic divergence "molecular clock" l ----> bacteriology / virology
(which agrees with fossil record) l
Evolution is happening all the time before our eyes!
(we see evolution of virus/bacteria)


PROOF OF THEORY OF EVOLUTION; Psychology / behaviour

Gorillas and man!! Common behaviour


PROOF OF THEORY OF EVOLUTION; Mathematical modeling

-calculating the chances of rival evolutionary theories
-u can prove biological evolution with mathematical modeling


What are the earliest life forms?

-the earliest life forms from which everything originated are microbes that like warm temperatures
-so now we go to the places where it was hot when the earth was formed


ORIGIN OF LIFE: other possibilites,
and when was the origin of life, first thingy ever known to man that is like (single cell organism)??

3)Primordial earth (earliest earth)
4)atmosphere, shallow ocean
5)Hot springs,
6)deep oceans, near surface
~~~ origin of life approx 4 billion years ago


What is the age equation? How do you use?

D= P(e^(lambda*t)-1)
T is age of sample
D is number of atoms of the daughter isotope in the sample
P is the number of atoms of parent isotope
Lambda is decay constant…
-Geometric radioactive decay

17-21b explanation
-lets say magma cooling, and mineral is being formed. At that time (t=0) you have 100% of some parents isotope
-as time passes, you move off to the right, some of these decay to the daughter. After a while, at 1 on x-axis (1 half life), half of the parent isotopes have converted to the daughter isotopes
-double the time, another half have been converted.. Etc.. Etc..
-this is a representation of
D= P(e^(lamda*t)-1)
-therefore, if you know # of half lifes, then you can take the ratio of these two isotopes and tell when the mineral/rock formed

axis of graph: %atom remaining - y axis
# of half lifes - x axis


Explain how meteorites could have been origin of life

Carbonaceous congregates, combination of ice and carbonates
-carbonaceous meteorites, which have compounds similar to amino acids, fall into ocean, and inseminated earth with amino acid


Explain how near surface hot springs could have been origin of life

microbes that live in these environments


Explain how deep ocean hot springs = black smokers could have been origin of life

Spreading centre in the ocean, water goes in cracks, comes out near the centre, carry with them a lot of minerals
-around them, we have prolific species, tube worms, fish, crabs, only life forms that are not nourished by the sun, but by endogenic heat from earth


Explain how atmosphere or shallow ocean could have been origin of life

Energy in earth due to thunder storms, etc
Volcanic eruption, gases that come out are CO2, CH4, SO4, N, these are key elements of life -primordial soup
When charged with energy, chemical reactions occur in the mixture


What is primordial soup?

Solution rich in organic compounds in the primitive oceans of earth, from which life is hypothesized to have originated (when charged with energy, chemical reactions occur in the mixture, creating life)