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Flashcards in Chapter 1 Summary Deck (55):
1

Science

Logical Inquiry based on experimentations

2

Hypothesis

idea or principle to be tested in experiments

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Experiment

Series of tests of the hypothesis; a controlled experiment eliminates biases or outside influences

4

Theory

a hypothesis that has been proved by experiments to have a high degree of confidence

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Law

A theory that has an unusually high level of confidence

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Process of science

active and changing as new experiments add new knowledge

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Science Affected By

cultuer, culture by society

8

Anatomy

science of the structure of an organism and the relationship of its parts

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Gross Anatomy

Study of the body and its parts relying only on the naked eye as a tool for observation

10

Microscopic Anatomy

study of body parts with a microscope

11

cytology

study of cells

12

histology

study of tissues

13

development anatomy

study of human growth and development

14

pathological anatomy

study of diseased body structures

15

systemic anatomy

study of the body by systems

16

phsyiology

science of the functions of organisms; subdivisions according to (organism level or organizational level)

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Organism involed

human or plant physiology

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organizational level

molecular or cellular physiology

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systemic function

respiratory physiology, neurophysiology,cardiovascular physiology

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Autopoiesis

living organisms are self-organized and self-maintaining

21

Cell theory

if its made of one or more cells, it is alive

22

Metabolism

all complex chemical reactions that drive life; anabolism, catabolism, synthesis, homeostasis

23

Anabolism

to build

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Catabolism

to break doqn

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Synthesis

converting non-self into self

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homeostasis

living habitat

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Characteristics of living things

Autopoietic, cellular, cell theory, exhibit metabolism, growth and reproduction, responsiveness, adaptation

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Chemical level of organization

all living things are composed of atoms and molecules (in cytoplasm)

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Organelle level

Mitochondria, nucleus, golgi apparatus, endoplasmic reticulum (parts of cells)

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Cellular level

Cell has nucleus surrounded by cytoplasm within a limiting membrane. Smallest and most numerous units that possess and exhibit charecteristics of life. perform different functions

31

Tissue Level

Organization of similar cells specialized to perform certain function, surrounded by nonliving matrix

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Four major tissue types

Epithelial tissue, connective tissue, muscle tissue, nervous tissue

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Organ level

organization of several kinds of tissues to perform a specific function, Represent discrete and functionally complex operational units.

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Organ System

varying numbers and kinds of organs arranged to perform complex functions (organism, population, community, ecosystem

35

Integumentary

Function: Barrier
Example: skin and its appendages

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Skeletal

Function:support, protection
Ex. Bones and cartilage

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Muscular

Function: movement and support
Ex. Muscles

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Nervous

Short term, in charge
Function: communication (electro-chemical control)
Example: CNS PNS (central nervous system, peripheral nervous system)

39

Endocrine

(Long term)
function:chemical communication control
example: glands, hormones, (message system)

40

Cariovascular

Function: transportation, circulation
Example: heart, blood vessels, blood

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Lymphatic

Function: fluid balance, immunity
Example: spleen, tonsils, lymph nodes

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Immune

Function: defense, protection
example: involves the inpot of many different systems

43

Respiratory

Function: gas exchange
Example: lungs

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Digestive

Function: digestive, absorption, excretion
Example: Mouth, stomach, intestines

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Urinary

Function: water homeostasis, filtration,
Example: kidneys

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Reproductive

Function: gamete production, gestation,
ex: gonads, genitals

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Systems of the Body

Integumentary, skeletal, muscular, nervous, control,endocrine, cardiovascular, lymphatic, immune, respiratory, digestive, urinary, reproductive

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Mediastinum

Heart, trachea, right and left bronchi, esophagus, thymus gland, aortic arch and thoracic aorta, venae cavae, various lymph nodes and nerves, thoracic duct

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Thoracic Cavity

Right and Left Pleural Cavities, Mediastinum

50

AbsominoPevlic Cavity

Abdominal Cavity, Pelvic Cavity

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Abdominal Cavity

Liver, Gallbladder, stomach, pancreas, intestines, spleen, kidneys, ureters

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Pelvic Cavity

Urinary bladder, female reproductive organs, uterus, uterine tubes, ovaries, male reproductive organs, prostate gland, seminal vesicles, parts of vas deference, part of a large intestine, namely, sigmoid colon and rectum

53

Homeostasis

Maintained through feedback control loops (negative and positive) temperature (regulation of blood solutes [co2 or glucose] hormonal regulation)

54

Negative Feedback Control Loops

Inhibitory
produce an action opposite to the change that activated the system (like a thermostat) (pH, hormone levels, blood glucose levels, temperature)

55

Positive Feedback Loops

stimulatory, amplify or reinforce the change that is occurring, tend to produce (sneezing, blood clotting, orgasm, child birth)