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Flashcards in Chapter 2 Summary Deck (50):
1

Matter

Anything that has mass or occupies space

2

Atom

Basic chemical unit of matter

3

Element

Substance made of only one kind of atom

4

Molecule

compound or composed of more than one kind of atom bonded together

5

Atoms three basic subatomic particles

kkkljklmkl

6

Bohr Models

saksdakl

7

Atomic Number

number of protons in an atom's nucleus (identifies kind of element)

8

Atomic weight

equal to the number of electrons plus the number of neutrons in the nucleus (the number of electrons equals protons in a non-ionic atom

9

Octet rule

an atom with 8 electrons in the outer energy level is inert

10

Atoms with fewer than 8 electrons

in the outer energy level will attempt to lose, gain, or share electrons with other atoms to achieve stability

11

Isotopes

isotopes of an element contain the same number of protons but a different number of nuetrons

12

Ions

Atoms (or molecules) with a charge.
(H+. Ca++. OH- Cl-)

13

Ionic Bond

Formed by a transfer of electrons.
NaCl Sodium chloride= table salt

14

Covalent Bond

formed by the sharing electrons (an electron pair)

15

Inorganic Molecules

Do not contain C-C or C-H bonds. Examples: oxygen and carbon dioxide, water, electrolytes (ions), minerals

16

Polarity

there are specific positive & negative charged areas around a water molecule molecule due to the position of the electrons (this allows water molecules to form hydrogen bonds [weak bonds])

17

Water is a great solvent

used for transportation and excretion

18

Water has high specific head

it can lose and gain large amounts of heat with little change in its own temperature, enables the body to maintain a relatively constant temperature

19

water has aHigh heat of vaporization

water requires the absorption to significant amount of heat to to change it from a liquid to a gas, allows the body to dissipate excess heat by sweating

20

waterIonizes easily

Water is a good buffer
minimizes pH changes in the body

21

pH

measurement of hydrogen concentration in a solution (1-14. 7= neutral. 7 = Alkaline [or base] OH-.)

22

H+

Hydrogen ion

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OH-

hydroxide ion

24

Organic

Contain attacked functional groups, exhibit monomer/polymer relationshop, organic describles

25

Monomers

single organic molecular unit.
can combine w other monomers to form polymers through dehydration synthesis

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Polymers

made of multiple monomers
can be broken down into monomers by hydrolosis

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Hydroxyl

|
-C-O-H
|
(COH)

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Carboxyl

O
-C//
\
OH
(COOH)

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Amino

H
-N /
\
H
NH2

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4 basic organic molecule categories

carbonhydrates, lipids, saturated, unsaturated

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Carbohydrates

monomer. sugars: "Simple." single or double ring structures, monosaccharides and disaccharides, ex: glucose, fructose, sucrose
Starches: "Complex" -composed of long chains, of monosaccharides, Ex: Glycogin.

32

Lipids

fats, oils and waxes
not water soluble
many are composed of fatty acids

33

Saturated

-C chain carries an H at every available place,
-C chain tends to be straight making the fat more dense (generally solid)
H H H H
| | | | O
H-C-C-C-C-C//
| | | | \
H H H H H

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Unsaturated

C Chain has double or triple bonds in one or more locations,
Chains are bend, makin them less dense (generally liquid)
H\ H O
\ | //
C=C-C=C-C
/ | | \
H H H OH

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Triglycerides (food)

composed of 3 fatty acids and 1 glycerol

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Phospholipids

composed of 2 fatty acids, 1 glycerol and 1 phosphate group

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phosphate groups

ionics, negatively charged because they violate the octet rule

38

Steroids

composed of
R
|
(NH2)-C-(COOH)
|
H

39

Proteins

composed of folded chains of amino acids. shape specific. form deterimines function. 2 basic roles: structural and functional.

40

Peptide bond

carboxyl and amino acid(dehydration synthesis bonds polymers out of monomers) (nitrogen makes proteins necessary)

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Primary structure (amino acids)

chain

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Secondary structure (amino acids)

pleated sheet, beta sheet

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Tertiary structure

Alpha helix

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Quarterary structure

protein with polypeptides

45

Denatured proteins

the unraveling of a normal protein

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Nucleic Acids

forms most genetic material (DNA, RNA) Composed of nucleotides. sugar, phophate group, nitrogenous base

47

DNA

Double helix strand of nucleotides

48

RNA

Single strand of nucleotides

49

ATP

single modified nucleotide

50

Properties of water

Polarity, water is a great solvent, water as a high specific heat, high heat of vapoization, ionizes easily