Flashcards in Chapter 1: The Sciences of Anatomy and Physiology Deck (242):
the study of structure and form, that examine the relationships among parts of the body as well as the structure of individual organs.
the study of function of the body parts. Examine how organs and body systems function under normal circumstances, as well ash how their functioning may be altered via medication or disease.
Scientific method refers to the systematic and rigorous process by which scientists:
examine natural events (or phenomena) through observation
develop a hypothesis for explaining these phenomena
experiment and test the hypothesis through the collection of data
determine if the data support the hypothesis, or if the hypothesis needs to be rejected or modified
examines structures that cannot be seen by the unaided eye
microscopic anatomy has several subdivision with two main divisions
cytology and histology
the study of body cells and their internal structure
the study of tissues
investigates the structure and relationships of body parts that are visible to the unaided eye, such as the brain and heart
Gross anatomy also called macroscopic anatomy
studies the anatomy of each functional body system
most undergraduate anatomy and physiology classes us this systemic approach
a study of the urinary system would involve examining the kidneys and the organs of urine transport. what type of anatomy is this?
examines all of the structures in a particular region of the body as a complete unit.
most medical school gross anatomy courses are taught using a regional anatomy approach
If you are studying the axillary region of the body, and in so doing examine the blood vessels, lymph nodes, musculature, connective tissue and skin. What type of anatomy is this?
focuses on both superficial anatomic marking and the internal body structures that relate to the skin covering them
health-care providers use features on the body to identify and locate important landmarks, such as pulse locations. what type of anatomy is this?
examines similarities and the differences in the anatomy of different species
if you examine limb structure in humans, dogs, and cats. what type of anatomy is this?
is the discipline concerned with developmental changes occurring from conception to birth
examines all anatomic changes resulting from disease. Both gross anatomic changes and microscopic structures are examined.
investigates the relationships among internal structures that may be visualized by specific scanning procedures, such as MRI or x-ray
examines the function of various organ systems, and they typically focus on the molecular or cellular level
examines the functioning of the heart, blood vessels, and blood.
_________ physiologists examine how the heart pumps the blood, what are the parameters for healthy blood pressure, and details of the cellular exchange mechanisms by which respiratory gases, nutrients, and wastes move between blood and body structures.
examines how nerve impulses travel throughout the nervous system
studies how respiratory gases are transferred by gas exchange between the lungs and the blood vessels
explores how the regulation of reproductive hormones can drive the reproductive cycle and influence sex cell production and maturation
investigates the relationship between the functioning of an organ system and disease or injury to that organ system.
Properties common to all organisms, including humans (6)
growth and development
all organisms exhibit a complex structure and order
the sum of all the chemical reactions that occur with the body.
small molecules are joined to form larger molecules
large molecules are broken down into smaller molecules
A metabolic reaction is the use of cellular energy (called ATP) for muscle contraction. What is this process called?
during their lifetime, organisms assimilate materials from their environment and often exhibit increased size (growth) and increased specialization as related to form and function (development).
growth and development
structures such as the brain become more complex and sophisticated over their lifetime. this is an example of what property of all organisms?
growth and development
the ability to sense and react to stimuli
changes in the external or internal environment
responsiveness occurs at almost all levels of ________
an organism must be able to adjust or direct internal bodily function in the face of environmental changes
when the body temperature rises, the body regulates this change by circulating more blood near its surface to facilitate heat loss, and thus return the body to within normal range. This is an example of ______.
all organisms produce new cells for growth, maintenance, and repair.
the simplest level, and it involves atoms and molecules
the smallest units of matter that exhibit the characteristics of an element
when 2 or more atoms combine they form a
more complex molecules are called
macromolecules form specialized microscopic subunits in the cells called
this level consists of cells
the cellular level
the smallest living structures and serve as the basic units of structure and function in organisms
the structures of cells _______, reflecting the specializations needed for their different functions.
this level consists of tissues
are groups of similar cells that perform common functions
how many major types of tissues are there?
this tissue covers exposed surfaces and lines body cavities
this tissue protects supports, and binds structures and organs
this tissue produces movement
this tissue conducts nerve impulses for communication
this level is composed of organs
two or more tissue types that work together to perform specific, complex functions.
contains related organs that work together to coordinate activities and achieve a common function
the organ system level
what is the highest level of structural organization in the body?
the organismal level
all body systems function _________ in an organism
a living being
multicellular organisms require sophisticated _________ with specialized structures and function to perform the myriad of activities required for the routine event of life.
Humans have 11.
provides protection, regulates body temperature, site of cutaneous receptors and some glands, synthesizes vitamin D, prevents water loss.
produces body movement, generates heat when muscles contract
provides support and protection, site of hemopoiesis (blood cell production), stores calcium and phosphorus, provides sites for muscle attachments
a regulatory system that controls muscles and some glands and responds to sensory stimuli. Also responsible for consciousness, intelligence, memory.
consists of glands and cell clusters that secrete hormones, which regulate development, growth and metabolism; maintain homeostasis of blood composition and volume, control digestive processes, and control reproduction
transports and filters lymph (interstitial fluid transported through lymph vessels) and participates in an immune response when necessary.
consists of the heart and blood vessels; the heart moves blood through blood vessels in order to distribute hormones, nutrients, gases and pick up waste products
responsible for exchange of gases (oxygen and CO2) between blood and the air in the lungs
filters the blood to remove waste products and biologically active molecules, concentrates waste products in the form of urine and expels urine from the body
produces males sex cells (sperm) and male hormones (testosterone) transfers sperm to the female.
male reproductive system
mechanically and chemically digests food materials, absorbs nutrients, and expels waste products
produces female sex cells (oocytes) and female hormones (estrogen, progesterone), receives sperm from male, site of fertilization of oocyte, site of growth and development of embryo and fetus, produces growth and development of embryo and fetus, produces and secretes breast milk for nourishment of newborn.
female reproductive system
when a person stands upright with the feet parallel and flat on the floor, the upper limbs are at the sides of the body, and the palms face anteriorly (toward the front); the head is level, and the yes look forward toward the observer
anatomist and physiologists refer to real or imaginary "slices" of the body, called ________ or _________, to examine the internal anatomy and describes the position of one body part relative to another.
sections or planes
implies an actual cut or slice to expose the internal anatomy
implies an imaginary flat surface passing through the body.
There are _____ major anatomic planes.
a vertical plane that divides the body or organ into anterior and posterior parts
coronal or frontal plane
the plane that divides the body or organ into superior and inferior parts.
transverse or horizontal or cross sectional plane
a vertical plane that divides the body or organ into left and right halves.
midsagittal or median plane
a plane that is parallel to the midsagittal plane, but either to the right or the left of the midsagittal plane is a
there are numerous minor planes called _____
planes that pass through the structure at an angle
in front of; toward the front surface
in back of; toward the back of surface
at the back side of the human body
at the belly side of the human body
closer to the head
closer to the feet
at the head end
at the rear or tail end
toward the nose or mouth
toward the midline of the body
away from the midline of the body
on the inside, internal to another structure
on the outside
closer to the point of attachment to trunk
farther away from the point of the attachment to trunk
the wrist is _____ to the elbow
the elbow is _______ to the hand
the skins is ______ to the biceps brachii muscle
the heart is ______ to the rib cage
the lungs are _____ to the shoulders.
the frontal lobe of the brain is ________ to the back of the head
the buttocks are _____ to the head
the shoulders are _____to the feet
the stomach is ______ to the heart
the chest is _______ to the pelvis
the umbilicus is on the _____ side of the body
the spinal cord is on the ____ side of the body
the heart is _____ to the sternum
the stomach is _____ to the spinal cord
the body is partitioned into 2 main regions
axial and appendicular
this region includes the head, neck, and truck. it forms the main vertical axis of the body
this region is composed of the upper and lower limbs
antecubital (front of elbow)
olecranal (back of elbow)
dorsum of the hand (back of he hand
palmar (palm of the hand)
popliteal (back of knee)
plantar surface (sole)
dorsum of the foot (top of the foot)
region inferior to the thorax (chest) and superior to the hip bones
region anterior to the elbow; also know as the cubital region
visible surface structures of the ear
arm ( the portion of the upper limb between the should and the elbow)
heel of the foot
leg (the portion of the lower limb between the knee and the ankle)
fingers or toes
lateral aspect of the leg
relating to the loins, or the inferior part of the back, between the ribs and pelvis
posterior aspect of the head
posterior aspect of the elbow
diamond-shaped region between the legs that contains the anus and external reproductive organs
sole of the foot
area posterior to the knee
anterior region of the pelvis
lateral (thumb side) aspect of the forearm
posterior region between the hip bones
anterior middle region of the thorax
ankle, root of the foot
chest or thorax
medial aspect of the leg
medial aspect of the forearm
internal organs and organ systems are housed within enclosed spaces or ___________
____________ are named either according to the bones that surround them or the organs they contain
the posterior aspect of the body is different from the ________, in that the posterior aspect contains cavities that are completely encased in bone and are physically and developmentally different.
the term dorsal body cavity has been used by others to describe this ___________.
the posterior aspect is subdivided into 2 enclosed cavities
cranial cavity and vertebral canal
_________ is formed by the bones of the cranium
_________ is formed by the bones of the vertebral column.
the vertebral canal house the ___________.
the larger, anteriorly placed cavity in the body.
The ventral cavity and its subdivision do not completely ____________.
encased their organs in bone
the ventral cavity is partitioned by the __________ in to 2 cavities.
thoracic cavity and inferior abdominopelvic cavity
A significant difference between the posterior aspect and the ventral cavity is that the subdivisions of the ventral cavity are lined with ____________.
thin serous membranes
Posterior aspect cavities have no __________.
serous membranes (a continuous layer of cells)
serous membranes form what two layers
parietal layer and visceral layer
typically lines the internal surface of the body and wall
covers the external surface of the organs with that cavity
between the parietal and visceral serous membrane layers is a potential space called the ______
serous membranes secrete a liquid called ________ within a serous cavity
serous fluid has the consistency of ______ and serves as a lubricant
the friction caused by the organs rubbing against the body wall is reduced by
the median space in the thoracic cavity is called the
the heart, thymus, espohagus, trachea, and major blood vessels that connect to the heart are found within
the heart is enclosed by a two layered serous membrane called the
the outer most layer of the serous membrane and forms the sac around the heart
form the heart's external surface
the potential space between the parietal and visceral layers of the pericardium, and it contains serous fluid.
abdominopelvic cavity may be subdivided into 2 smaller cavities by a horizontal plane at the level of the superior aspects of the hip bones
the superior to the plane is the abdominal cavity
the inferior to the plane is the pelvic cavity
contains most of digestive system organs, as well as the kidneys and most of the ureters
contains the distal part of the large intestine, the remainder of the ureters and the urinary bladder, and the internal reproductive organs.
the two layered serous membrane that lines the abdominopelvic cavity.
the outer layer of this serous membrane, lines the internal walls of the abdomiopelvic cavity
the inner layer of this serous membrane
the potential space between these serous membrane layers is the
the left and right sides of the thoracic cavity house the lungs,which are associated with a two layered serous membrane called the
how many compartments are located in the abdominopelvic region
is the middle region and is named for the umbilicus, or navel that lies in its center
the superior region above the umbilical region
lies inferior to the umbilical region
inferior to the costal cartilages and lateral to the epigastric region
right and left hypochondriac regions
lateral to the umbilical region
right and left lumbar regions
lateral to the hypogastric region
right and left illiac
right upper RUQ
left upper LUQ
right lower RLQ
left lower LLQ
refers to the ability of an organism to maintain consistent internal environment, or "steady state", in response to changing internal or external conditions
the body structure that detects changes in a variable, which is a substance or process that is regulated
receptor typically consists of
a change in the variable (physical or chemical factor), such as a change in light, temperature, chemicals, or stretch in muscle.
is the structure that interprets input from the receptor and initiates changes through the effector.
the structure that brings about the change to alter the stimulus
the most common effectors are _____ and _______
muscles and glands
homeostatic control systems are separated into two broad categories based on whether the system maintains the variable within a normal range by moving the stimulus in the opposite direction, or amplifies the stimulus in the same direction
negative and positive feedback
most processes in the body are controlled by _______
the resulting action will always be in the opposite direction of the stimulus
the variable is maintained within a normal level
a set point
the stimulus here is reinforced to continue in the same direction until a climactic event occurs
______ feedback mechanisms occur much less frequently than _______ feedback mechanisms
positive feedback , negative feedback
the term that describes the many physiologic processes to maintain the health of the body
diabetes is an example of a ________ imbalance
the specific cause of the homeostatic imbalance
is the primary method of obtaining an image of a body part for diagnostic purposes
a form of high energy radiation, penetrates solid structures within the body.
the most widely used imaging method is ________
sonography also known as an ultrasound
a technician slowly moves a small, handheld device across the body surface. This device produces high-frequency ultrasound waves and then receives signals that are reflected from the internal organs.
sonography or ultrasound
scan perivously termed a computerized axial tomography (CAT) scan, is a more sophisticated application of x-rays.
computed tomography (CT)
a modified three dimensional x-ray technique used primarily to view blood vessels. It involves taking radiographs both prior to and after injecitng an opaque medium into a blood vessel. The computer compares the before and after images, and removes or subtracts the data from the before image from the data generated by the after image, thus leaving an image that may indicate evidence of vessel bloackages.
digital substraction angiography (DSA)
using a modified CT scanners, a special technique called _______- provides two important pieces of medical information.
1. a three dimensional images of body organs
2. information about the normal organ movement as well as changes in its internal volume, it allows the physician to see the movement of an organ
Dynamic Spatial Reconstruction (DSR)
was developed as a noninvasive technique to visualize soft tissues
provide the means to map brain function based on local oxygen concentration differences in blood flow.
Functional MRI or fMRI