Chapter 1: The Sciences of Anatomy and Physiology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 1: The Sciences of Anatomy and Physiology Deck (242):
1

the study of structure and form, that examine the relationships among parts of the body as well as the structure of individual organs.

anatomy

2

the study of function of the body parts. Examine how organs and body systems function under normal circumstances, as well ash how their functioning may be altered via medication or disease.

physiology

3

Scientific method refers to the systematic and rigorous process by which scientists:

examine natural events (or phenomena) through observation
develop a hypothesis for explaining these phenomena
experiment and test the hypothesis through the collection of data
determine if the data support the hypothesis, or if the hypothesis needs to be rejected or modified

4

examines structures that cannot be seen by the unaided eye

microscopic anatomy

5

microscopic anatomy has several subdivision with two main divisions

cytology and histology

6

the study of body cells and their internal structure

cytology

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the study of tissues

histology

8

investigates the structure and relationships of body parts that are visible to the unaided eye, such as the brain and heart

Gross anatomy also called macroscopic anatomy

9

studies the anatomy of each functional body system

systemic anatomy
most undergraduate anatomy and physiology classes us this systemic approach

10

a study of the urinary system would involve examining the kidneys and the organs of urine transport. what type of anatomy is this?

systemic anatomy

11

examines all of the structures in a particular region of the body as a complete unit.

regional anatomy
most medical school gross anatomy courses are taught using a regional anatomy approach

12

If you are studying the axillary region of the body, and in so doing examine the blood vessels, lymph nodes, musculature, connective tissue and skin. What type of anatomy is this?

regional anatomy

13

focuses on both superficial anatomic marking and the internal body structures that relate to the skin covering them

surface anatomy

14

health-care providers use features on the body to identify and locate important landmarks, such as pulse locations. what type of anatomy is this?

surface anatomy

15

examines similarities and the differences in the anatomy of different species

comparative anatomy

16

if you examine limb structure in humans, dogs, and cats. what type of anatomy is this?

comparative anatomy

17

is the discipline concerned with developmental changes occurring from conception to birth

embryology

18

examines all anatomic changes resulting from disease. Both gross anatomic changes and microscopic structures are examined.

pathologic anatomy

19

investigates the relationships among internal structures that may be visualized by specific scanning procedures, such as MRI or x-ray

radiographic anatomy

20

examines the function of various organ systems, and they typically focus on the molecular or cellular level

physiologists

21

examines the functioning of the heart, blood vessels, and blood.

cardiovascular physiology

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_________ physiologists examine how the heart pumps the blood, what are the parameters for healthy blood pressure, and details of the cellular exchange mechanisms by which respiratory gases, nutrients, and wastes move between blood and body structures.

cardiovascular

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examines how nerve impulses travel throughout the nervous system

neurophysiology

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studies how respiratory gases are transferred by gas exchange between the lungs and the blood vessels

respiratory physiology

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explores how the regulation of reproductive hormones can drive the reproductive cycle and influence sex cell production and maturation

reproductive physiology

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investigates the relationship between the functioning of an organ system and disease or injury to that organ system.

pathophysiology

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Properties common to all organisms, including humans (6)

organization
metabolism
growth and development
responsiveness
regulation
reproduction

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all organisms exhibit a complex structure and order

organization

29

the sum of all the chemical reactions that occur with the body.

metabolism

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small molecules are joined to form larger molecules

anabolism (metabolism)

31

large molecules are broken down into smaller molecules

catabolism (metabolism)

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A metabolic reaction is the use of cellular energy (called ATP) for muscle contraction. What is this process called?

catabolism

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during their lifetime, organisms assimilate materials from their environment and often exhibit increased size (growth) and increased specialization as related to form and function (development).

growth and development

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structures such as the brain become more complex and sophisticated over their lifetime. this is an example of what property of all organisms?

growth and development

35

the ability to sense and react to stimuli

responsiveness

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changes in the external or internal environment

stimuli

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responsiveness occurs at almost all levels of ________

organization

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an organism must be able to adjust or direct internal bodily function in the face of environmental changes

regulation

39

when the body temperature rises, the body regulates this change by circulating more blood near its surface to facilitate heat loss, and thus return the body to within normal range. This is an example of ______.

regulation

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all organisms produce new cells for growth, maintenance, and repair.

reproduction

41

the simplest level, and it involves atoms and molecules

chemical level

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the smallest units of matter that exhibit the characteristics of an element

atoms

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when 2 or more atoms combine they form a

molecule

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more complex molecules are called

macromolecules

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macromolecules form specialized microscopic subunits in the cells called

organelles

46

this level consists of cells

the cellular level

47

the smallest living structures and serve as the basic units of structure and function in organisms

cells

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the structures of cells _______, reflecting the specializations needed for their different functions.

vary widely

49

this level consists of tissues

tissue level

50

are groups of similar cells that perform common functions

tissues

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how many major types of tissues are there?

4

52

this tissue covers exposed surfaces and lines body cavities

epithelial

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this tissue protects supports, and binds structures and organs

connective

54

this tissue produces movement

muscle

55

this tissue conducts nerve impulses for communication

nervous

56

this level is composed of organs

organ level

57

two or more tissue types that work together to perform specific, complex functions.

organs

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contains related organs that work together to coordinate activities and achieve a common function

the organ system level

59

what is the highest level of structural organization in the body?

the organismal level

60

all body systems function _________ in an organism

independently

61

a living being

organism

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multicellular organisms require sophisticated _________ with specialized structures and function to perform the myriad of activities required for the routine event of life.

organ systems
Humans have 11.

63

provides protection, regulates body temperature, site of cutaneous receptors and some glands, synthesizes vitamin D, prevents water loss.

integumentary system

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produces body movement, generates heat when muscles contract

muscular system

65

provides support and protection, site of hemopoiesis (blood cell production), stores calcium and phosphorus, provides sites for muscle attachments

skeletal system

66

a regulatory system that controls muscles and some glands and responds to sensory stimuli. Also responsible for consciousness, intelligence, memory.

nervous system

67

consists of glands and cell clusters that secrete hormones, which regulate development, growth and metabolism; maintain homeostasis of blood composition and volume, control digestive processes, and control reproduction

endocrine system

68

transports and filters lymph (interstitial fluid transported through lymph vessels) and participates in an immune response when necessary.

lymphatic system

69

consists of the heart and blood vessels; the heart moves blood through blood vessels in order to distribute hormones, nutrients, gases and pick up waste products

cardiovascular system

70

responsible for exchange of gases (oxygen and CO2) between blood and the air in the lungs

respiratory system

71

filters the blood to remove waste products and biologically active molecules, concentrates waste products in the form of urine and expels urine from the body

urinary system

72

produces males sex cells (sperm) and male hormones (testosterone) transfers sperm to the female.

male reproductive system

73

mechanically and chemically digests food materials, absorbs nutrients, and expels waste products

digestive system

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produces female sex cells (oocytes) and female hormones (estrogen, progesterone), receives sperm from male, site of fertilization of oocyte, site of growth and development of embryo and fetus, produces growth and development of embryo and fetus, produces and secretes breast milk for nourishment of newborn.

female reproductive system

75

when a person stands upright with the feet parallel and flat on the floor, the upper limbs are at the sides of the body, and the palms face anteriorly (toward the front); the head is level, and the yes look forward toward the observer

anatomic position

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anatomist and physiologists refer to real or imaginary "slices" of the body, called ________ or _________, to examine the internal anatomy and describes the position of one body part relative to another.

sections or planes

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implies an actual cut or slice to expose the internal anatomy

section

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implies an imaginary flat surface passing through the body.

plane

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There are _____ major anatomic planes.

3

80

a vertical plane that divides the body or organ into anterior and posterior parts

coronal or frontal plane

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the plane that divides the body or organ into superior and inferior parts.

transverse or horizontal or cross sectional plane

82

a vertical plane that divides the body or organ into left and right halves.

midsagittal or median plane

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a plane that is parallel to the midsagittal plane, but either to the right or the left of the midsagittal plane is a

sagittal plane

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there are numerous minor planes called _____

oblique planes

85

planes that pass through the structure at an angle

oblique planes

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in front of; toward the front surface

anterior

87

in back of; toward the back of surface

posterior

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at the back side of the human body

dorsal

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at the belly side of the human body

ventral

90

closer to the head

superior

91

closer to the feet

inferior

92

at the head end

cranial

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at the rear or tail end

caudal

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toward the nose or mouth

rostral

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toward the midline of the body

medial

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away from the midline of the body

lateral

97

on the inside, internal to another structure

deep

98

on the outside

superficial

99

closer to the point of attachment to trunk

proximal

100

farther away from the point of the attachment to trunk

distal

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the wrist is _____ to the elbow

distal

102

the elbow is _______ to the hand

proximal

103

the skins is ______ to the biceps brachii muscle

superficial

104

the heart is ______ to the rib cage

deep

105

the lungs are _____ to the shoulders.

medial

106

the frontal lobe of the brain is ________ to the back of the head

rostral

107

the buttocks are _____ to the head

caudal

108

the shoulders are _____to the feet

cranial

109

the stomach is ______ to the heart

inferior

110

the chest is _______ to the pelvis

superior

111

the umbilicus is on the _____ side of the body

ventral

112

the spinal cord is on the ____ side of the body

dorsal

113

the heart is _____ to the sternum

posterior

114

the stomach is _____ to the spinal cord

anterior

115

the body is partitioned into 2 main regions

axial and appendicular

116

this region includes the head, neck, and truck. it forms the main vertical axis of the body

axial region

117

this region is composed of the upper and lower limbs

appendicular region

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abdominal anterior

abdomen

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upper extremity

deltoid (shoulder)
brachial (arm)
antecubital (front of elbow)
olecranal (back of elbow)
antebracial (forearm)
carpal (wrist)
dorsum of the hand (back of he hand
palmar (palm of the hand)
digital (finger)

120

Lower extremity

femoral (thigh)
patellar (kneecap)
popliteal (back of knee)
crural (leg)
sural (calf)
calcaneal (heel)
plantar surface (sole)
tarsal (ankle)
dorsum of the foot (top of the foot)
digital (toe)
pes (foot)

121

region inferior to the thorax (chest) and superior to the hip bones

abdominal

122

forearm

antebrachial

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region anterior to the elbow; also know as the cubital region

antecubital

124

visible surface structures of the ear

auricular

125

armpit

axillary

126

arm ( the portion of the upper limb between the should and the elbow)

brachial

127

cheek

buccal

128

heel of the foot

calcaneal

129

wrist

carpal

130

head

cephalic

131

neck

cervical

132

hip

coxal

133

skull

cranial

134

leg (the portion of the lower limb between the knee and the ankle)

crural

135

shoulder

deltoid

136

fingers or toes

digital

137

back

dorsal/dorsum

138

face

facial

139

thigh

femoral

140

lateral aspect of the leg

fibular

141

forehead

frontal

142

buttock

gluteal

143

great toe

hallux

144

groin

inguinal

145

relating to the loins, or the inferior part of the back, between the ribs and pelvis

lumbar

146

breast

mammary

147

hand

manus

148

chin

mental

149

nose

nasal

150

posterior aspect of the head

occipital

151

posterior aspect of the elbow

olecranal

152

mouth

oral

153

eye

orbital

154

palm

palmar

155

kneecap

patellar

156

chest

pectoral

157

pelvis

pelvic

158

diamond-shaped region between the legs that contains the anus and external reproductive organs

perineal

159

foot

pes

160

sole of the foot

plantar

161

thumb

pollex

162

area posterior to the knee

popliteal

163

anterior region of the pelvis

pubic

164

lateral (thumb side) aspect of the forearm

radial

165

posterior region between the hip bones

sacral

166

shoulder blade

scapular

167

anterior middle region of the thorax

sternal

168

calf

sural

169

ankle, root of the foot

tarsal

170

chest or thorax

thoracic

171

medial aspect of the leg

tibial

172

medial aspect of the forearm

ulnar

173

navel

umbilical

174

vertebral

spinal column

175

internal organs and organ systems are housed within enclosed spaces or ___________

cavities

176

____________ are named either according to the bones that surround them or the organs they contain

body cavities

177

the posterior aspect of the body is different from the ________, in that the posterior aspect contains cavities that are completely encased in bone and are physically and developmentally different.

ventral cavity

178

the term dorsal body cavity has been used by others to describe this ___________.

posterior aspect

179

the posterior aspect is subdivided into 2 enclosed cavities

cranial cavity and vertebral canal

180

_________ is formed by the bones of the cranium

cranial cavity

181

_________ is formed by the bones of the vertebral column.

vertebral canal

182

the vertebral canal house the ___________.

spinal cord

183

the larger, anteriorly placed cavity in the body.

ventral cavity

184

The ventral cavity and its subdivision do not completely ____________.

encased their organs in bone

185

the ventral cavity is partitioned by the __________ in to 2 cavities.

thoracic cavity and inferior abdominopelvic cavity

186

A significant difference between the posterior aspect and the ventral cavity is that the subdivisions of the ventral cavity are lined with ____________.

thin serous membranes

187

Posterior aspect cavities have no __________.

serous membranes (a continuous layer of cells)

188

serous membranes form what two layers

parietal layer and visceral layer

189

typically lines the internal surface of the body and wall

parietal layer

190

covers the external surface of the organs with that cavity

visceral layer

191

between the parietal and visceral serous membrane layers is a potential space called the ______

serous cavity

192

serous membranes secrete a liquid called ________ within a serous cavity

serous fluid

193

serous fluid has the consistency of ______ and serves as a lubricant

oil

194

the friction caused by the organs rubbing against the body wall is reduced by

serous fluid

195

the median space in the thoracic cavity is called the

mediastinum

196

the heart, thymus, espohagus, trachea, and major blood vessels that connect to the heart are found within

the mediastinum

197

the heart is enclosed by a two layered serous membrane called the

serous pericardium

198

the outer most layer of the serous membrane and forms the sac around the heart

parietal pericardium

199

form the heart's external surface

visceral pericardium

200

the potential space between the parietal and visceral layers of the pericardium, and it contains serous fluid.

pleural cavity

201

abdominopelvic cavity may be subdivided into 2 smaller cavities by a horizontal plane at the level of the superior aspects of the hip bones

the superior to the plane is the abdominal cavity
the inferior to the plane is the pelvic cavity

202

contains most of digestive system organs, as well as the kidneys and most of the ureters

abdominal cavity

203

contains the distal part of the large intestine, the remainder of the ureters and the urinary bladder, and the internal reproductive organs.

pelvic cavity

204

the two layered serous membrane that lines the abdominopelvic cavity.

peritoneum

205

the outer layer of this serous membrane, lines the internal walls of the abdomiopelvic cavity

parietal peritoneum

206

the inner layer of this serous membrane

visceral peritoneum

207

the potential space between these serous membrane layers is the

peritoneal cavity

208

the left and right sides of the thoracic cavity house the lungs,which are associated with a two layered serous membrane called the

pleura

209

how many compartments are located in the abdominopelvic region

9

210

is the middle region and is named for the umbilicus, or navel that lies in its center

umbilical region

211

the superior region above the umbilical region

epigastric region

212

lies inferior to the umbilical region

hypogastric region

213

inferior to the costal cartilages and lateral to the epigastric region

right and left hypochondriac regions

214

lateral to the umbilical region

right and left lumbar regions

215

lateral to the hypogastric region

right and left illiac

216

abdominopelvic quadrants

right upper RUQ
left upper LUQ
right lower RLQ
left lower LLQ

217

refers to the ability of an organism to maintain consistent internal environment, or "steady state", in response to changing internal or external conditions

homeostasis

218

the body structure that detects changes in a variable, which is a substance or process that is regulated

receptor

219

receptor typically consists of

sensory neurons

220

a change in the variable (physical or chemical factor), such as a change in light, temperature, chemicals, or stretch in muscle.

stimulus

221

is the structure that interprets input from the receptor and initiates changes through the effector.

control center

222

the structure that brings about the change to alter the stimulus

effector

223

the most common effectors are _____ and _______

muscles and glands

224

homeostatic control systems are separated into two broad categories based on whether the system maintains the variable within a normal range by moving the stimulus in the opposite direction, or amplifies the stimulus in the same direction

negative and positive feedback

225

most processes in the body are controlled by _______

negative feedback

226

the resulting action will always be in the opposite direction of the stimulus

negative feedback

227

the variable is maintained within a normal level

a set point

228

the stimulus here is reinforced to continue in the same direction until a climactic event occurs

positive feedback

229

______ feedback mechanisms occur much less frequently than _______ feedback mechanisms

positive feedback , negative feedback

230

the term that describes the many physiologic processes to maintain the health of the body

homeostasis

231

diabetes is an example of a ________ imbalance

homeostatic

232

the specific cause of the homeostatic imbalance

diagnosis

233

is the primary method of obtaining an image of a body part for diagnostic purposes

radiography

234

a form of high energy radiation, penetrates solid structures within the body.

x-rays

235

the most widely used imaging method is ________

sonography also known as an ultrasound

236

a technician slowly moves a small, handheld device across the body surface. This device produces high-frequency ultrasound waves and then receives signals that are reflected from the internal organs.

sonography or ultrasound

237

scan perivously termed a computerized axial tomography (CAT) scan, is a more sophisticated application of x-rays.

computed tomography (CT)

238

a modified three dimensional x-ray technique used primarily to view blood vessels. It involves taking radiographs both prior to and after injecitng an opaque medium into a blood vessel. The computer compares the before and after images, and removes or subtracts the data from the before image from the data generated by the after image, thus leaving an image that may indicate evidence of vessel bloackages.

digital substraction angiography (DSA)

239

using a modified CT scanners, a special technique called _______- provides two important pieces of medical information.
1. a three dimensional images of body organs
2. information about the normal organ movement as well as changes in its internal volume, it allows the physician to see the movement of an organ

Dynamic Spatial Reconstruction (DSR)

240

was developed as a noninvasive technique to visualize soft tissues

MRI

241

provide the means to map brain function based on local oxygen concentration differences in blood flow.

Functional MRI or fMRI

242

scan is used both to anaylze the metabolic state of a tissue at a given moment in time and to determine which tissues are most active. The procedure begins with an injection of a radioactively labeled glucose, which emits particles called positrons. Collisions between a positron and electron cause the release of gamma rays that can be detected by sensors and analyzed by computer.

Positron Emission Tomography (PET)