Chapter 1: The Sciences of Anatomy and Physiology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 1: The Sciences of Anatomy and Physiology Deck (242)
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1

the study of structure and form, that examine the relationships among parts of the body as well as the structure of individual organs.

anatomy

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the study of function of the body parts. Examine how organs and body systems function under normal circumstances, as well ash how their functioning may be altered via medication or disease.

physiology

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Scientific method refers to the systematic and rigorous process by which scientists:

examine natural events (or phenomena) through observation
develop a hypothesis for explaining these phenomena
experiment and test the hypothesis through the collection of data
determine if the data support the hypothesis, or if the hypothesis needs to be rejected or modified

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examines structures that cannot be seen by the unaided eye

microscopic anatomy

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microscopic anatomy has several subdivision with two main divisions

cytology and histology

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the study of body cells and their internal structure

cytology

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the study of tissues

histology

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investigates the structure and relationships of body parts that are visible to the unaided eye, such as the brain and heart

Gross anatomy also called macroscopic anatomy

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studies the anatomy of each functional body system

systemic anatomy
most undergraduate anatomy and physiology classes us this systemic approach

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a study of the urinary system would involve examining the kidneys and the organs of urine transport. what type of anatomy is this?

systemic anatomy

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examines all of the structures in a particular region of the body as a complete unit.

regional anatomy
most medical school gross anatomy courses are taught using a regional anatomy approach

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If you are studying the axillary region of the body, and in so doing examine the blood vessels, lymph nodes, musculature, connective tissue and skin. What type of anatomy is this?

regional anatomy

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focuses on both superficial anatomic marking and the internal body structures that relate to the skin covering them

surface anatomy

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health-care providers use features on the body to identify and locate important landmarks, such as pulse locations. what type of anatomy is this?

surface anatomy

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examines similarities and the differences in the anatomy of different species

comparative anatomy

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if you examine limb structure in humans, dogs, and cats. what type of anatomy is this?

comparative anatomy

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is the discipline concerned with developmental changes occurring from conception to birth

embryology

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examines all anatomic changes resulting from disease. Both gross anatomic changes and microscopic structures are examined.

pathologic anatomy

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investigates the relationships among internal structures that may be visualized by specific scanning procedures, such as MRI or x-ray

radiographic anatomy

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examines the function of various organ systems, and they typically focus on the molecular or cellular level

physiologists

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examines the functioning of the heart, blood vessels, and blood.

cardiovascular physiology

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_________ physiologists examine how the heart pumps the blood, what are the parameters for healthy blood pressure, and details of the cellular exchange mechanisms by which respiratory gases, nutrients, and wastes move between blood and body structures.

cardiovascular

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examines how nerve impulses travel throughout the nervous system

neurophysiology

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studies how respiratory gases are transferred by gas exchange between the lungs and the blood vessels

respiratory physiology

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explores how the regulation of reproductive hormones can drive the reproductive cycle and influence sex cell production and maturation

reproductive physiology

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investigates the relationship between the functioning of an organ system and disease or injury to that organ system.

pathophysiology

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Properties common to all organisms, including humans (6)

organization
metabolism
growth and development
responsiveness
regulation
reproduction

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all organisms exhibit a complex structure and order

organization

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the sum of all the chemical reactions that occur with the body.

metabolism

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small molecules are joined to form larger molecules

anabolism (metabolism)