Chapter 1 - Water & Carbon Cycle - Complete Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 1 - Water & Carbon Cycle - Complete Deck (157)
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1

Define inputs?

Energy entering the system

2

Define outputs?

Energy leaving the system

3

Define stores?

Energy is stored in the system

4

Define flows/transfers?

Energy moving around the system

From one store to another

5

Define boundaries?

Boundary/limit of the system

6

Define open system?

The system has inputs and outputs of energy

7

Define closed system?

The system has no inputs or outputs of energy

8

Define dynamic equilibrium?

There is a balance between the inputs and outputs of energy

9

Define positive feedback?

When the effects of an action are amplified by other knock-on effects

10

Define negative feedback?

When the effects of an action are nulllified by other knock-on effects

11

Define attributes?

Characteristics of the elements that may be perceived and measured

12

Define relationships?

Associations that occur between elements and attributes

13

Name the 6 spheres?

- Atmosphere - Air around us
- Lithosphere - Earth/land
- Cryosphere - Ice/glaciers
- Biosphere - Plants/animals
- Hydrosphere - water
- Pedosphere - soil/ground

14

Define cascading system?

Output of one system is the input of the next system

15

Solid --> Liquid

Tricky one
melting

Ablation

16

Liquid --> Solid

Tricky one

Accumulation

17

Solid --> Gas

Tricky one

Sublimation

18

Gas --> Solid

Tricky one

Deposition

19

Gas --> Liquid

Easy one

Condensation

20

Liquid --> Gas

Easy one

Evaporation

21

What percentage of freshwater is on earth?

>3%

22

What percentage of freshwater is in:
- cryosphere
- groundwater
- liquid freshwater
- Water vapour in atmosphere

- cryosphere - 69%
- groundwater - 30%
- liquid freshwater - 0.3%
- Water vapour in atmosphere - 0.04%

23

Is the global hydrological system open or closed?

A closed system

24

Percentage of water stored on earth:
Ice caps
Groundwater
Lakes
Soil moisture
Atmosphere
Swamps
Rivers

Ice caps - 69.56%
Groundwater - 30.10%
Lakes - 0.25%
Soil moisture - 0.05%
Atmosphere - 0.04%
Swamps - 0.03%
Rivers - 0.006%

25

Define drainage basin?

Is an area of land drained by a river and its tributaries.

26

Define the boundary of a drainage basin?

The watershed

27

Are drainage basins open or closed systems?

Open systems

28

Define 1 input of water into a drainage basin?

- PRECIPITATION(rain, snow, hail, dew, frost)

29

Define 5 stores of water in a drainage basin?

- INTERCEPTION (Vegetation intercepts rainfall)
- VEGETATION STORAGE (Water stored in plants)
- SURFACE STORAGE (puddles, ponds, lakes)
- GROUNDWATER (aquifers, water table)
- CHANNEL (river, stream)

30

Define 10 flows of water in a drainage basin?
I
S
T
S
T
P
G
B
I
C

- INFILTRATION (Water soaks into land)
- SURFACE RUN-OFF (Water flowing over the land)
- THROUGHFALL (Water dripping from plant to plant)
- STEMFLOW (Water moving down plant stem)
- THROUGHFLOW (Water moving through ground downhill)
- PERCOLATION (Water seeping through rocks)
- GROUNDWATER FLOW (Water flowing through ground to the watertable)
- BASEFLOW (groundwater flow that feeds into rivers)
- INTERFLOW (Water flowing downhill through permeable rock above water table)
- CHANNEL FLOW (Water flowing through rivers or streams