Flashcards in Chapter 11 - Resource security - Complete Deck (114)
Any aspect of the natural environment that can be used to meet human needs.
Define resource security?
The ability of a country to safeguard a reliable and sustainable flow of resources to maintain living standards of its population while ensuring ongoing economic and social development.
What is the Physical, Economic & Geopolitical security?
P = Uninterrupted supply.
E = Affordable.
G = Avoid dependency on another country.
Non-renewable; finite supply; can be permanently expended; measured in absolute amounts not rates.
Define flow energy?
Renewable; replaced within a sufficiently short time span; measured in annual rates generated.
Define renewable sources?
And state the 6 energy types?
One that can be used repeatedly and does not run out because it is naturally replaced:
Define possible resources?
These are resources that are thought to exist but haven't been sampled yet.
Define inferred resources?
These are resources that have been identified but haven't been measured.
Define indicated reserve?
The size of the reserve has been partly measured, and the measurements have been used to estimate the actual extent.
Define measured reserve?
The size of the reserve has been measured and is known accurately.
Define the 5 stages of development?
- Exploration - Location a potential new resource and evaluating.
- Exploitation - Extracting, preparing & transporting resource.
- Depletion - Resource begins to run out.
- Development - As yields decrease, new methods of extraction may be developed to prolong the life of the resource.
- Exhaustion - Resource becomes limited & not physically possible or economically viable to extract.
Define resource frontier?
Is a place with abundant natural resources that are being exploited for the first time.
Define resource peak?
The period of highest production of the resource.
Define resource exhaustion?
When the resource has been exploited too much and starting to decline.
How do they make flow resources more sustainable?
- Extract it slower
- Reduce amount used
How do they make stock resources more sustainable?
- Extract it slower
- Less is used as quicky
- Increasing rates of re-use/recycling
- Finding alternatives
Why are flow resources more sustainable than stock resources?
They can be replenished so is infinite.
Define the steps in planning a new resource development plan?
- Assessing potential impacts (habitats, increased pollution)
- Identifying how to mitigate any negative impacts.
- Looking at alternatives.
- Deciding whether plan goes ahead.
- Monitoring development
Define abstraction (water)?
Removing water from water sources
Define 2 places water can be extracted from?
- Underground (Aquifers)
- Surface water (Rivers, lakes, glaciers, reservoirs)
Define the 3 physical factors controlling water supply?
Define how water supply is affected by the CLIMATE as a physical factor?
- Rely on rainfall for water supply
- Hot climates use water from lakes and rivers due to high evaporation levels - cause water scarcity.
Define GEOLOGY as a physical factor controlling water supply?
- Impermeable rocks allow water to flow through them into rivers.
- Permeable rocks store rainwater creating aquifers.
- Some rocks contain salts & minerals which dissolve into the water, making it unsuitable for drinking.
Define DRAINAGE as a physical factor controlling water supply?
- Drainage systems move water from one area to another.
- Large drainage basins cover more land and will receive more rainfall - increasing supply.
- Some drainage basins cannot cope with heavy rainfall
- Can cause sewage systems to overflow affecting water quality.
Define the 3 human factors controlling water supply?
- Increasing demand is reducing supplies.
- Human activities (farming, industry) can pollute water supplies.
- Price of water goes up as supply of water decrease.
Define the 4 uses of water?
- Electricity generation
Define 4 countries with lots of water available?
- New Zealand
Define 2 countries with low amounts of water available?
Define 3 countries with high demand for water?