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Flashcards in Chapter 10 Deck (39):
1

A circular doe folded structure

Basin

2

When rocks break into smaller pieces

Brittle deformation

3

Differential stress that shortens a rock body, even pressure on all sides

Compressional stress

4

General term for the process of folding, faulting, shearing, compression, or extension of rocks as the result of various natural forces

Deformation

5

Forces that are unequal in different directions

Differential stress

6

The angle at which a rock layer or fault is inclined from the horizontal. The direction of dip is at right angle to the strike

Dip

7

A fault in which the movement is parallel to the dip of the fault

Dip-slip fault

8

A roughly circular unfolded structure

Dome

9

A type of solid-state flow that produces a change in the size of a rock body without fracturing.
Occurs at depths where temperatures and confining pressures are high

Ductile deformation

10

A break in a rock mass along which movement had occurred

Fault

11

A cliff created by movement along a fault. It represents the exposed surface of the fault prior to modification by weathering and erosion

Fault scarp

12

A bent layer or series of layers that were originally horizontal and subsequently deformed

Fold

13

That which tends to put stationary objects in motion or changes the motions of moving objects

Force

14

A valley formed by the downloaded displacement of a fault-bounded block

Graben

15

A tilted fault block in which the higher side is associated with mountainous topography and the lower side is a basin that fills with sediment

Half-Graben

16

An elongate, uplifted block of crust bounded by faults

Horst

17

A fracture in rock along which there has been no movement

Joint

18

A remnant of outlier of a thrust sheet that was isolated by erosion

Klippe

19

A one-limbed flexes in strata. The strata are usually flat-lying or very gently dipping down on both sides of the monocline

Monocline

20

A fault in which the rock above fault plane has moved down relative to the rock below

Normal fault

21

A fault in which the material above the fault planes moves up in relation to the material above

Reverse fault

22

Stress that causes two adjacent parts of a body to slide past one another

Shear

23

An irreversible change in the shape and size of a rock body caused by stress

Strain

24

The force per unit areas acting on any surface within a solid

Stress

25

The compass direction of the line of intersection created by a dipping bed or fault and a horizontal surface. Is always perpendicular to the direction of dip.

Strike

26

A fault along which the movement is horizontal

Strike-slip fault

27

A linear downfold in sedimentary strata; the opposite of anticline

Syncline

28

The type of stress that tends to pull a body apart

Tensional stress

29

A low-angle reverse fault

Thrust fault

30

A major strike-slip fault that cuts through the lithosphere and accommodates motion between two plates

Transform fault

31

Where axial planes intersects folded strata

Hinge line

32

Beds dip at about the same angle, but in opposite directions in

Symmetrical fold

33

Axial plane is inclined and limbs in opposite directions, but at different angles

Asymmetrical fold

34

Axial plane is inclined and both limbs dip in the same direction

Overturned fold

35

Divides a fold into two symmetrical halves

Axial plane

36

Occurs when the hinge line is not horizontal and the fold appears to plunge into the ground

Plunging fold

37

The rock surface immediately above a fault

Hanging wall

38

The rock surface below a fault

Footwall

39

A fold in sedimentary strata that resembles an arch

Anticline