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Flashcards in Chapter 11 Deck (25):
1

Vibration of Earth produced by the rapid release of energy

Earthquake

2

The sudden release of stored strain in rocks that results in movement along a fault

Elastic rebound

3

The location on Earths surface that lies directly above the focus of an earthquake

Epicenter

4

A break in a rock mass along which movement has occurred

Fault

5

Gradual displacement along a fault. Such activity occurs relatively smoothly and with little noticeable seismic activity.

Fault creep

6

The zone within Earth where rock displacement produces an earthquake

Focus

7

Small earthquakes that often precede a major earthquake

Foreshock

8

A measure of the degree of earthquake shaking at a given locale, based on the amount of damage

Intensity

9

The transformation of a stable soil into a fluid that is often unable to support buildings or other structures

Liquefaction

10

An estimate of the total amount of energy released during an earthquake, based on seismic records

Magnitude

11

A more precise measure of earthquake magnitude than the Richter scale that is derived from the amount of displacement that occurs along a fault zone

Moment magnitude

12

A type of seismic wave that involves alternating compression and expansion of the material through which it passes

Primary (P) waves

13

a scale of earthquake magnitude based on the amplitude of the largest seismic wave

Richter scale

14

A seismic wave that involves oscillation perpendicular to the direction propagation

Secondary (S) waves

15

A segment of an active fault zone that has not experienced a major earthquake over a span when most other segments have. Such segments are probable sites for future major earthquakes

Seismic gaps

16

A record made by a seismograph

Seismogram

17

An instrument that records earthquake waves

Seismograph

18

The study of earthquakes and seismic waves

Seismology

19

Seismic waves that travel along the outer layer of Earth.

Surface wave

20

A smaller earthquake that follows the main earthquake

Aftershock

21

A rapidly moving ocean wave, generated by earthquake activity, that is capable of inflicting heavy damage in coastal regions

Seismic waves

22

The Japanese word for a seismic sea wave

Tsunami

23

The narrow zone of inclined seismic activity that extends from a trench downward into the asthenosphere

Wadati-Benioff zones

24

The study of the timing, location , and size of prehistoric earthquakes

Paleoseismology

25

A 12 point scale developed to evaluate earthquake intensity, based on the amount of damage to various structures

Modified Mercalli Intensity Scale