Chapter 10 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 10 Deck (30):
1

Managing—coping with complexity

Formulate plans and objectives
Monitor results
Take corrective action
Expedite activities
Solve technical problems
Serve as peacemaker
Make tradeoffs among time, costs, and project scope

2

Leading—coping with change

Recognize the need to change to keep the project on track
Initiate change
Provide direction and motivation
Innovate and adapt as necessary
Integrate assigned resources

3

Managing Project Stakeholders

Project Management Maxims:
You can’t do it all and get it all done
Projects usually involve a vast web of relationships.
Hands-on is not the same as leading
More pressure and more involvement can reduce effectiveness
What’s important to you may not be to someone else
Different groups have different stakes (responsibilities, agendas, and priorities) in the outcome of a project.

4

Influence as Exchange

The Law of Reciprocity
One good deed deserves another, and likewise, one bad deed deserves another.

Quid pro Quo
Mutual exchanges of resources and services (“back-scratching”) build relationships.

Influence “Currencies” (Cohen and Bradford)
Cooperative relationships are built on the exchange of organizational “currencies” (favors).

5

Influence as Exchange

Task-related
Position-related
Inspiration-related
Relationship-related
Personal-related

6

Task Related

Resources - Lending or giving money, budget increases, personnel, etc.
Assistance - Helping with existing projects or undertaking unwanted tasks.
Cooperation - Giving task support, providing quicker response time, or aiding implementation.
Information - Providing organizational & technical knowledge.

7

Position-related currencies

Advancement - Giving a task or assignment that can result in promotion.
Recognition - Acknowledging effort, accomplishments, or abilities.
Visibility - Providing a chance to be known by higher-ups or significant others in the organization.
Network/Providing opportunities for linking with others.

8

Inspiration-related currencies

Vision - Being involved in a task that has larger significance for the unit, organization, customer, or society.
Excellence – Opportunity to do important things really well.
Ethical correctness - Doing what is “right” by a higher standard than efficiency.

9

Relationship-related currencies

Acceptance - Providing closeness and friendship.
Personal support - Giving personal and emotional backing.
Understanding - Listening to others’ concerns and issues.

10

Personal-related currencies

Challenge/learning - Sharing tasks that increase skills and abilities.
Ownership/involvement - Letting others have ownership and influence.
Gratitude - Expressing appreciation.

11

Mapping Dependencies
Project team perspective

Whose cooperation will we need?
Whose agreement or approval will we need?
Whose opposition would keep us from accomplishing the project?

12

Mapping Dependencies
Stakeholders’ perspective

What differences exist between the team and on whom will we depend?
How do the stakeholders view the project?
What is the status of our relationships with the stakeholders?
What sources of influence does the team have relative to the stakeholders?

13

Management by Wandering Around (MBWA)

Involves managers spending the majority of their time in face-to-face interactions with employees building cooperative relationships.

14

Managing Upward Relations

Top Management Support = Project Success
Allocate budgets
Respond to unexpected needs
A clear signal of the importance of cooperation

Motivating the Project Team
Influence top management in favor of the team:
Rescind unreasonable demands
Provide additional resources
Recognize the accomplishments of team members

15

Ethical Dilemmas

Situations where it is difficult to determine whether conduct is right or wrong

Situations where it is difficult to determine whether conduct is right or wrong:
Padding of cost and time estimations
Exaggerating pay-offs of project proposals
Falsely assuring customers that everything is on track
Being pressured to alter status reports
Compromising safety standards to accelerate progress
Approving shoddy work

Code of conduct
Professional standards and personal integrity

16

Contradictions of Project Management

Innovate and maintain stability.
See the big picture while getting your hands dirty.
Encourage individuals but stress the team.
Hands-off/Hands-on.
Flexible but firm.
Team vs. organizational loyalties.

17

Qualities of an Effective Project Manager

Systems thinker
Personal integrity
Proactive
High emotional intelligence (EQ)
General business perspective
Effective time management
Skillful politician
Optimist

18

Characteristics of Effective Project Managers

Initiate contact with key players
Anticipate potential problems
Provide encouragement
Reinforce the objectives and vision of the project
Intervene to resolve conflicts and prevent stalemates
Patience, pressure & support

19

Stakeholders

people or organizations that are actively involved in the project or who have interests in the outcomes

20

Project Team

manages and completes the work

21

Managing Stakeholders
Project Managers

compete for and share resources, information and support

22

Managing Stakeholders
Functional Managers

responsible for activities in a specialized department or function (engineering, marketing, finance)

23

Managing Stakeholders
Administrative Support

HR, IT, Purchasing, and Maintenance provide valuable support, constraints and requirements

24

Managing Stakeholders
Top Management

approves funding and establishes priorities within the organization

25

Managing Stakeholders
Project Sponsors

use influence to gain project approval. Reputation is tied to a project’s success

26

Managing Stakeholders
Contractors

may do some or all of the work while balancing commitments to their own profit margins and other customers

27

Managing Stakeholders
Government Agencies

place constraints and requirements on projects through permits, inspections, testing, health and safety, etc.

28

Managing Stakeholders
Other Organizations

suppliers and public interest groups can delay project deliverables

29

Managing Stakeholders
Customers

define the scope of the project and their satisfaction is the ultimate measure of success

30

Leading by Example

Priorities
Urgency
Problem Solving
Cooperation
Standards of preforming
Ethics - how you deal with ethical dilemmas