Flashcards in Chapter 10 Deck (30):
Managing—coping with complexity
Formulate plans and objectives
Take corrective action
Solve technical problems
Serve as peacemaker
Make tradeoffs among time, costs, and project scope
Leading—coping with change
Recognize the need to change to keep the project on track
Provide direction and motivation
Innovate and adapt as necessary
Integrate assigned resources
Managing Project Stakeholders
Project Management Maxims:
You can’t do it all and get it all done
Projects usually involve a vast web of relationships.
Hands-on is not the same as leading
More pressure and more involvement can reduce effectiveness
What’s important to you may not be to someone else
Different groups have different stakes (responsibilities, agendas, and priorities) in the outcome of a project.
Influence as Exchange
The Law of Reciprocity
One good deed deserves another, and likewise, one bad deed deserves another.
Quid pro Quo
Mutual exchanges of resources and services (“back-scratching”) build relationships.
Influence “Currencies” (Cohen and Bradford)
Cooperative relationships are built on the exchange of organizational “currencies” (favors).
Influence as Exchange
Resources - Lending or giving money, budget increases, personnel, etc.
Assistance - Helping with existing projects or undertaking unwanted tasks.
Cooperation - Giving task support, providing quicker response time, or aiding implementation.
Information - Providing organizational & technical knowledge.
Advancement - Giving a task or assignment that can result in promotion.
Recognition - Acknowledging effort, accomplishments, or abilities.
Visibility - Providing a chance to be known by higher-ups or significant others in the organization.
Network/Providing opportunities for linking with others.
Vision - Being involved in a task that has larger significance for the unit, organization, customer, or society.
Excellence – Opportunity to do important things really well.
Ethical correctness - Doing what is “right” by a higher standard than efficiency.
Acceptance - Providing closeness and friendship.
Personal support - Giving personal and emotional backing.
Understanding - Listening to others’ concerns and issues.
Challenge/learning - Sharing tasks that increase skills and abilities.
Ownership/involvement - Letting others have ownership and influence.
Gratitude - Expressing appreciation.
Project team perspective
Whose cooperation will we need?
Whose agreement or approval will we need?
Whose opposition would keep us from accomplishing the project?
What differences exist between the team and on whom will we depend?
How do the stakeholders view the project?
What is the status of our relationships with the stakeholders?
What sources of influence does the team have relative to the stakeholders?
Management by Wandering Around (MBWA)
Involves managers spending the majority of their time in face-to-face interactions with employees building cooperative relationships.
Managing Upward Relations
Top Management Support = Project Success
Respond to unexpected needs
A clear signal of the importance of cooperation
Motivating the Project Team
Influence top management in favor of the team:
Rescind unreasonable demands
Provide additional resources
Recognize the accomplishments of team members
Situations where it is difficult to determine whether conduct is right or wrong
Situations where it is difficult to determine whether conduct is right or wrong:
Padding of cost and time estimations
Exaggerating pay-offs of project proposals
Falsely assuring customers that everything is on track
Being pressured to alter status reports
Compromising safety standards to accelerate progress
Approving shoddy work
Code of conduct
Professional standards and personal integrity
Contradictions of Project Management
Innovate and maintain stability.
See the big picture while getting your hands dirty.
Encourage individuals but stress the team.
Flexible but firm.
Team vs. organizational loyalties.
Qualities of an Effective Project Manager
High emotional intelligence (EQ)
General business perspective
Effective time management
Characteristics of Effective Project Managers
Initiate contact with key players
Anticipate potential problems
Reinforce the objectives and vision of the project
Intervene to resolve conflicts and prevent stalemates
Patience, pressure & support
people or organizations that are actively involved in the project or who have interests in the outcomes
manages and completes the work
compete for and share resources, information and support
responsible for activities in a specialized department or function (engineering, marketing, finance)
HR, IT, Purchasing, and Maintenance provide valuable support, constraints and requirements
approves funding and establishes priorities within the organization
use influence to gain project approval. Reputation is tied to a project’s success
may do some or all of the work while balancing commitments to their own profit margins and other customers
place constraints and requirements on projects through permits, inspections, testing, health and safety, etc.
suppliers and public interest groups can delay project deliverables
define the scope of the project and their satisfaction is the ultimate measure of success