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Organizational effectiveness

Cycle of
and Implementation


Your challenge as project managers

To create ‘order’ in seemingly empty and chaotic spaces and structures

To use ‘soft’ tools, such as people & time management to create the ‘hard’ deliverables of a successfully managed project


What is a project?

A complex, non-routine, one-time effort limited by time, budget, resources & performance specifications designed to meet customer needs.


Major characteristics of a project

Has an established objective
Has a defined life span with a beginning and an end
Requires across-the-organizational participation
Involves doing something never been done before
Has specific time, cost, and performance requirements


Project management is about:
Keeping things on

T – Time
R – Resources
A – Actions
C – Communications


Project management is for?

The Organization?
The Group?
For the individual?
For you?


The challenge of project management

The Project Manager

Manages temporary, non-repetitive activities and frequently acts independently of the formal organization.
Marshals resources for the project
Is linked directly to the customer interface
Provides direction, coordination, and integration to the project team.
Is responsible for performance and success of the project.
Must induce the right people at the right time to address the right issues and make the right decisions.


Project Life Cycle



Programs vs. Projects
(Program defined)

A series of coordinated, related, multiple projects that continue over an extended time and are intended to achieve a goal.
A higher level group of projects targeted at a common goal.
Project - completion of a required course in project management
Program - completion of all courses required for a business major


Routine, Repetitive Work

Taking class notes
Daily entering of sales receipts into the accounting ledger
Responding to a supply-chain request
Practicing scales on the piano
Routine manufacture of an Apple iPod



Writing a term paper
Setting up a sales kiosk for a professional accounting meeting
Developing a supply-chain information system
Writing a new piano piece
Designing an iPod that is approximately 2 X 4 in., interfaces with PC, and stores 10,000 songs


The importance of project management

Factors leading to the increased use of project management:
Compression of the product life cycle
Knowledge explosion
Triple bottom line (planet, people, profit)
Corporate downsizing
Increased customer focus
Small projects represent big problems


Benefits of an integrative approach

Integration (or centralization) of project management provides senior management with:
An overview of all project management activities
A big picture of how organizational resources are used
A risk assessment of their portfolio of projects
A rough metric of the firm’s improvement in managing projects relative to others in the industry
Linkages of senior management with actual project execution management


Piecemeal project management systems

Potential problems:
Projects that do not support the organization’s overall strategic plan and goals.
Independent managerial decisions that create internal imbalances, conflicts and confusion resulting in dissatisfied customers.
Failure to prioritize projects results in the waste of resources on non-value-added activities/projects


Major functions of portfolio management

Oversee project selection
Monitor aggregate resource levels and skills
Encourage use of best practices
Balance projects in the portfolio in order to represent a risk level appropriate to the organization
Improve communication among all stakeholders
Create a total organization perspective that goes beyond silo thinking
Improve overall management of projects over time


Triple bottom line