Chapter 15 Flashcards Preview

Intro to Project Management > Chapter 15 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 15 Deck (21):
1

International Projects

Types of Projects
Domestic
Overseas
Foreign
Global

Issues in Managing International Projects
Environmental factors affecting projects
Global expansion considerations
Challenges of working in foreign cultures
Selection and training of overseas managers

2

International Assignments
Positives

Increased income
Increased responsibilities
Career opportunities
Foreign travel
New lifetime friends

3

International Assignments
Negatives

Absence from home and friends, and family
Personal security risks
Missed career opportunities
Difficulties with foreign language, culture, and laws

4

Environmental Factors Affecting International Projects

Economic
Legal/Political
Security
Infrastructure
Culture
Geography

5

Legal/Political

Political stability
National and local laws and regulations
Government, state and local bureaucracies
Government interference or support
Government corruption

6

Security

International terrorism
National and local security
Local crime and kidnapping
Risk management

7

Geography

Climate and seasonal differences
Natural obstacles

8

Economic

Gross domestic product (GDP)
Protectionist strategies and policies
Balance of payments
Currency convertibility and exchange rates
Inflation rates
Local labor force: supply, educational and skill levels

9

Infrastructure

Telecommunication networks
Transportation systems
Power distribution grids
Unique local technologies
Educational systems

10

Culture

Customs and social standards
Values and philosophies
Language
Multicultural environments

11

Culture Definition

A system of shared norms, beliefs, values, and customs that bind people together, creating shared meaning and a unique identity.

12

Cultural Differences

Geographic regions
Ethnic or religious groups
Language
Economic

13

Ethnocentric Perspective

The tendency to believe that one’s cultural values and ways of doing things are superior to all others
- Wanting to conduct business only on your terms and stereotyping other countries.
- Ignoring the “people factor” in other cultures by putting work ahead of building relationships.

14

Adjustments Required

Relativity of time and punctuality
Culture-related ethical differences
Personal and professional relationships
Attitudes toward work and life

15

Cross-Cultural Orientations

Relation to Nature
- How people relate to the natural world around them and to the supernatural.

Time Orientation
- The culture focus on the past, present, or future.

Activity Orientation
- How to live: “being” or living in the moment, doing, or controlling.

Basic Nature of People
- Whether people viewed as good, evil, or some mix of these two.

Relationships Among People
- The degree of responsibility one has for others.

16

The Hofstede Cultural Dimensions Framework

Individualism versus collectivism
- Identifies whether a culture holds individuals or the group responsible for each member’s welfare.

Power distance
- Describes degree to which a culture accepts status and power differences among its members.

Uncertainty avoidance
- Identifies a culture’s willingness to accept uncertainty and ambiguity about the future.

Masculinity-femininity
- Describes the degree to which the culture emphasizes competitive and achievement-oriented behavior or displays concerns for relationships

17

Working in Different Cultures

Relying on Local Intermediaries
Translators
Social connections
Expeditors
Cultural advisors and guides

Culture Shock
The natural psychological disorientation that people suffer when they move into a different culture.
A breakdown in a person’s selective perception and effective interpretation system induced by foreign stimuli and the inability to function effectively in a strange land.

18

Coping with Culture Shock

Create “stability zones” that closely create home
Modify expectations and behavior
Redefine priorities and develop realistic expectations
Focus on most important tasks and relish small accomplishments
Use project work as a bridge until adjusted to the new environment
Engage in regular physical exercise programs, practice meditation and relaxation exercises, and keep a journal

19

Selection and Training for International Projects
Selection Factors

Work experience with cultures other than one’s own
Previous overseas travel
Good physical and emotional health
Knowledge of a host nation’s language
Recent immigration background or heritage
Ability to adapt and function in the new culture

20

Selection and Training for International Projects
Areas for Training to Increase Understanding of a Foreign Culture:

Religion
Dress codes
Education system
Holidays—national and religious
Daily eating patterns
Family life
Business protocols
Social etiquette
Equal opportunity

21

Selection and Training for International Projects
Learning Approaches to Cultural Fluency

The “information-giving” approach—the learning of information or skills from a lecture-type orientation.
The “affective approach”—the learning of information/skills that raise the affective responses on the part of the trainee and result in cultural insights.
The “behavioral/experiential” approach—a variant of the affective approach technique that provides the trainee with realistic simulations or scenarios.