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Flashcards in Chapter 4 Deck (22):

Defining the Project Steps

Step 1: Defining the Project Scope
Step 2: Establishing Project Priorities
Step 3: Creating the Work Breakdown Structure
Step 4: Integrating the WBS with the Organization
Step 5: Coding the WBS for the Information System


Project Scope Checklist

Project objective
Technical requirements
Limits and exclusions
Reviews with customer


Step 1: Defining the Project Scope

Identifying the end result or mission of the project, product or service in specific, tangible, and measurable terms.


Step 1: Purpose of Scope Statement

To clearly define the deliverables
To focus on successful completion of project goals
To be used as a planning tool and to measure success
Use the 5W’s: who, what, where, when, why



The expected outputs over the life of a project.



A significant event in a project that naturally occurs at a point in time.


Technical Requirements

A product or services’ desired specific abilities, features & compatibilities.


Limits & Exclusions

Limits need to be defined to avoid false expectations.
Exclusions discuss what is not included.


Customer/Client Reviews

Scope checklist ends with review, understanding and agreement with project deliverables.


Scope Statements

Also called Statements of Work (SOW)


Project Charter

An expanded version of scope statement
Authorizes the project manager to initiate and lead the project


Scope Creep

The tendency for the project scope to expand over time due to changing requirements, specifications, and priorities.


Step 2: Establishing Project Priorities

Causes of Project Trade-offs
Shifts in the relative importance of criterions related to cost, time, and performance parameters

Managing the Priorities of Project Trade-offs
Constrain: a parameter is a fixed requirement
Enhance: optimizing a criterion over others
Accept: reducing (or not meeting) a criterion requirement


Step 3: Creating the WBS

Work Breakdown Structure (WBS)
An hierarchical outline that identifies the products and work elements involved in a project.
Defines the relationship of the final deliverable (the project) to its sub-deliverables, and in turn, their relationships to work packages.
Best suited for design and build projects that have tangible outcomes rather than process-oriented projects.


How WBS Helps the PM

Facilitates evaluation of cost, time, and technical performance of the organization on a project.
Provides management with informative insights to each organizational level.
Helps develop the Organization Breakdown Structure (OBS), that assigns project responsibilities to organizational units and individuals.
Helps manager plan, schedule, and budget.
Defines communication channels and assists in coordinating the various project elements.


Work Packages

It is output-oriented in that it:
Defines work (what).
Identifies time to complete a work package (how long).
Identifies a time-phased budget to complete a work package (cost).
Identifies resources needed to complete a work package (how much).
Identifies a person responsible for units of work (who).
Identifies monitoring points (milestones) for measuring success.


Step 4: Integrating the WBS with the Organization

Organizational Breakdown Structure (OBS)
Provides a framework to summarize organization work unit performance.
Identifies organization units responsible for work packages.
Ties the organizational units to cost control accounts.


Step 5: Coding the WBS for the Information System

WBS Coding System
Levels and elements of the WBS
Organization elements
Work packages
Budget and cost information
Allows reports to be consolidated at any level in the organization structure


Responsibility Matrices (RM)

Summarizes the tasks to be accomplished and who is responsible for what on the project.
Lists project activities and participants.
Clarifies critical interfaces between units and individuals that need coordination.
Provide an means for all participants to view their responsibilities and agree on their assignments.
Clarifies the extent or type of authority that can be exercised by each participant.


Project Communication Plans Address

What information needs to be collected and when?
Who will receive the information?
What methods will be used to gather and store information?
What are the limits, if any, on who has access to certain kinds of information?
When will the information be communicated?
How will it be communicated?


Information Needs

Project status reports
Deliverable issues
Changes in scope
Team status meetings
Accepted request changes
Action items
Milestone reports


Developing a Communication Plan

Stakeholder analysis
Information needs
Sources of information
Dissemination modes
Responsibility and timing