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Flashcards in Chapter 10 Deck (102):
1

sound waves

undulating displacement of molecules caused by changing pressure

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frequency

number of cycles that a wave completes in a given amount of time

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hertz (Hz)

measure of frequency (repetition rate) of a sound wave; 1 hertz is equal to 1 cycle per second

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3 physical attributes of sound waves

frequency, amplitude, complexity--->produced by the displacement of air molecules

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how fast do sound waves travel?

fixed speed of 1100 feet per second

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Frequency & pitch perception

the rate at which sound waves vibrate is measured as cycles per second, or hertz

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amplitude and perception of loudness

intensity of sound is usually measured in decibels

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complexity and timbre

mixture of frequencies; a sound's complexity determines its timbre

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timbre

perception of sound quality; perceived characteristics that distinguish a particular sound from all others of similar pitch and loudness

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low pitch sounds

have slow wave frequencies (fewer cycles per second)

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high pitched sounds

have faster wave frequencies (many cycles per second)

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range of human's hearing

20-20,000 hertz

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perfect (absolute) pitch

runs in families; suggests genetic influence

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amplitude

intensity of a stimulus; in audition, roughly equivalent to loudness, graphed by increasing height of a sound wave

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decibel (dB)

unit for measuring the relative physical intensity of sounds

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what causes increased loudness?

increase compression of air molecules intensifies the energy in a sound wave, which amps the sound---makes it louder

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pure tones

sounds with a single frequency

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complex tones

sounds that mix wave frequencies together in combinations

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fundamental frequency

the rate at which the complete waveform pattern repeats

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overtones

set of higher-frequency sound waves that vibrate at whole-number (integer) multiples of the fundamental frequency

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noise

sounds that are aperiodic or random

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frequency of waves

pitch

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height (amplitude) of waves

loudness

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left temporal lobe

speech

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right temporal lobe

music

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what does music help us do?

regulate our own emotion and to affect the emotion of others

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buzz

nonspeech and nonmusic noise produced at a rate of about 5 segments per second

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segment

a distinct unit of sound

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normal speed of speech

8-10 segments per second; capable of understanding speech at the rate of 30 segments per second

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categorization of sounds

auditory system must have a mechanism for categorizing sounds as being the same despite small differences in pronunciation. Experience must affect this mechanism bc different languages categorize speech differently

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loudness

magnitude of a sound as judged by a person

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pitch

the position of each tone on a musical scale as judged by the listener

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prosody

melodical tone of the spoken voice

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progression of sound waves

ear collects waves--> converts to mechanical energy--> electrochemical neural energy--> brainstem (auditory cortex)

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pinna

funnel-like external structure of the outer ear catches waves and deflects them to the external ear canal

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external ear canal

short distance from pinna inside the head; amplifies sound waves somewhat and directs them to the eardrum at its inner end

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middle ear

air filled chamber that containes the ossicles

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ossicles

bones of the middle ear; malleus (hammer), incus (anvil), and stapes (stirrup); attach the eardrum to the oval window

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oval window

an opening in the bony casing of the cochlea

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cochlea

inner-ear structure that contains the auditory receptor cells

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organ of Corti

receptor cells in the cochlea and the cells that support them

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basilar membrane

receptor surface in the cochlea that transduces sound waves into neural activity

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hair cell

sensory neurons in the cochlea tipped by cilia; when stimulated by waves in the cochlear fluid, outer hair cells generate graded potentials in inner hair cells, which act as the auditory receptor cells

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cilia

filaments at the tip of a hair cell

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tectorial membrane

cilia in the basilar membrane loosely contact this membrane

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processing sound waves

pressure from the stirrup on the oval window makes conchlear fluid move; the waves traveling through the fluid bend the basilar and tectorial membranes which stimulates the cilia of the outer hair cells. This stimulation generates graded potentials in the inner hair cells that act as auditory receptor cells.

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What determines how much neurotransmitter is released?

the change in membrane potential of the inner hair cells varies the amount of neurotransmitter released

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Fast wave frequencies

caused maximum peaks of displacement near the base of the basilar membrane

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slower wave frequencies

cause maximum displacement peaks near the membrane's apex

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what do hair cells do?

transform sound waves into neural activity

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how many sets of hair cells do we have?

two: 500 inner, 12000 outer

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Are both inner and outer hair cells auditory receptors?

NO. only inner

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How are inner hair cells stimulated?

the movement of the basilar and tectorial membranes causes the cochlear fluid to flow past the cilia of the inner cells, bending them back and forth

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Purpose of outer hair cells?

to sharpen the cochlea's resolving power by contracting or relaxing

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how to outer hair cells contract or relax?

axons in the auditory nerve-->outer hair cells send a message to the brainstem auditory areas and receives a message back that causes the cells to alter tension

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depolarization

movement of cilia toward the tallest

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hyperpolarization

movement toward the shortest cilia

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what do inner hair cells synapse with?

neighboring bipolar cells, the axons that form the auditory (cochlear) nerve

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auditory nerve

forms part of the eighth cranial nerve, the auditory vestibular nerve that governs hearing and balance

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how many inputs to bipolar cells receive?

ONE. from a single inner hair cell recetpor

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do projections from the cochlear nucleus connect with cells on the same side of the head?

They connect with cells on the same and opposite sides of the head--> perceptions of a single sound

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Pathways from the interior colliculus

ventral region--> primary auditory cortex; dorsal region--> projects to the auditory cortical regions adjacent to area A1

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medial geniculate nucleus

major thalamic region concerned with audition

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primary auditory cortex (area A1)

asymmetrical structures, found within Heschl's gyrus in the temporal lobes, that receive input from the ventral region of the medial geniculate nucleus

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where is A1 located?

within Heschl's gyrus, surrounded by secondary cortical areas A2

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Wernicke's area

secondary auditory cortex (planum temporale) lying behind Heschl's gyrus at the rear of the left temporal lobe that regulates language comprehension; also called posterior speech zones

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lateralization

process whereby functions become localized primarily on one side of the brain

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insula

located within the lateral fissure, multifunctional cortical tissue that contains regions related to language, to the perception of taste, and to the neural structures underlying social cognition

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is the auditory cortex symmetrical?

no--it is anatomically and functionally asymmetrical

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Lateralized functions

left--> Language; right--> music

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tonotropic representation

property of audition in which sound waves are processed in a systematic fashion from lower to higher frequencies

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cochlear implant

electronic device implanted surgically into the inner ear to transduce sound waves into neural activity and allow a deaf person to hear

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Pitch and tonotropic representation

hair-cell cilia at the base of the cochlea are maximally displaced by high-frequency waves that we hear as low-pitched sounds.

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pitch and bipolar cells

convey information about the spot on the basilar membrane from apex to base that is being stimulated

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Detecting loudness

simplest way for a cochlear (bipolar) cells to indicate sound-wave intensity is to fire at a higher rate when amplitude is greater

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Detecting location

since each cochlear nerve synapses on both sides of the brain--> mechanisms for locating the source of a sound

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left-ear, right-ear arrival times

detecting location; carried out in the medial part of the superior olivary complex

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What happens when we don't detect a different between the left and right ears?

we infer that the sound is directly in front of or behind us

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How do we detect the source of a sound?

relative loudness and location (ear)

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Neurons in ventral pathway

decode spectrally complex sounds (object recognition--including the meaning of speech sounds)

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neurons in the dorsal pathway

less is known; plays a role in integrating auditory and somatosensory information to control speech production

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Is language genetically determined?

it is genetically based in humans

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Syntax

rules that specify exactly how various parts of speech are positioned in a sentence

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creolization

development of a new language from what was formerly a rudimentary language or pidgin

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Broca's area

anterior speech area in the left hemisphere that functions with the motor cortex to produce the movements needed for speaking

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Broca's area (shorter definition)

stores motor programs for speaking words

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Wernicke's area (shorter definition)

contains sound images of words

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Aphasia

inability to speak or comprehend language despite the presence of normal comprehension and intact vocal mechanisms.

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Wernicke's aphasia

is the inability to understand or to produce meaningful language even though the production of words is still intact

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Broca's aphasia

is the inability to speak fluently despite the presence of normal comprehension and intact vocal mechanisms.

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Arcuate fasciculus

messages travel to Brocas from Wernicke's through this; connects these two regions

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stimulation to A1

produces simple tones--ringing sounds; analyzes bursts of noise; analyzes incoming auditory signals, speech and nonspeech

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stimulation to adjacent areas to A1 (Wernicke's)

causes interpretation of sound (ex. buzzing is bc of cricket); analyzes complex auditory stimulation; responsible for higher-order signal processing required for analyzing language sound patterns

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four important cortical regions for language

broca's, wenicke's, dorsal area of the frontal lobes and the areas of the motor and somatosensory cortex (control facial, tongue, throat muscles)

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supplementary speech area

speech-production region on the dorsal surface of the left frontal lobe

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speech arrest

stopping of ongoing speech completely

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aneruysm

bulge in a blood-vessel wall caused by weakening of the tissue

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amusia

tone deafness--inability to distinguish between musical notes

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Stroke & Music

activates the motor and premotor cortex and can improve gait and arm training after stroke

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Aphasia & Music

enhances the ability to discriminate speech sounds and to distinguish speech from background noise

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Parkinson's & music

stepping to the beat of music can improve their gait length and walking speed

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echolocation

ability to identify and locate an object by bouncing sound waves off the object