DO NOT STUDY Chapter 15.2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in DO NOT STUDY Chapter 15.2 Deck (35):
1

association cortex

Neocortex outside the primary sensory and motor cortices that functions to produce cognition.

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binding problem

Philosophical question focused on how the brain ties single and varied sensory and motor events together into a unified perception or behavior.

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how much of the neocortex do the primary sensory and motor areas occupy?

1/3

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What do 2/3 of the neocortex occupy?

located in the frontal, temporal, parietal, and occipital lobes, is referred to generally as the association cortex

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function of neocortex

produce cognition.

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connections of the association cortex

A major source of input to all cortical areas is the thalamus, which rests atop the brainstem. The primary sensory cortex receives inputs from thalamic nuclei that receive information from the body’s sense organs. But inputs to the association cortex come from thalamic areas that receive their inputs from other regions in the cortex.
As a result, inputs to the association cortex are already highly processed

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temporal association regions

produce cognition related to visual and auditory processing.

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parietal cortex

closely related to somatosensation and movement control.

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frontal cortex

cortex coordinates information coming from the parietal and temporal association regions with information coming from subcortical regions.

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prefrontal cortex (PFC)

encompass its dorsal, lateral, orbital frontal, and medial regions

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anterior cingulate cortex (ACC)

An additional frontal-lobe region; functions as an interface between emotion and cognition.

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damage to V4

can no longer perceive color

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Damage to v5

can no longer see movement

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Agnosic

lack information about objects; damage to the ventral stream (visual processing) in the temporal association cortex

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knowledge of what things are

temporal

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knowledge of how to grasp

parietal

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multimodal regions

combine characteristics of stimuli across different senses when we encounter them, separately or together.

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Spatial cognition

refers to a whole range of mental functions that vary from navigational ability (getting from point A to point B) to the mental manipulation of complex visual arrays

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ability to move/visualize

the ability to mentally manipulate visual images seems likely to have arisen in parallel with the ability to navigate in space.
The evolution of skill in mental manipulation is also closely tied to the evolution of physical movements.

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attention

Selective narrowing or focusing of awareness to part of the sensory environment or to a class of stimuli.

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dorsal stream

in the parietal lobes plays a central role in controlling vision for action. Discrete limb movements are made to points in space, so a reasonable supposition is that the evolutionary development of the dorsal stream provided a neural basis for such spatial cognitive skills as the mental rotation of objects.

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what plays an important role in attention?

frontal lobes

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frontal association cortex plays a critical role in what?

the ability to flexibly direct attention where it is needed.

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when does neglect occur?

when a brain-injured person ignores sensory information that should be considered important.

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contralateral neglect

Ignoring a part of the body or world on the side opposite (contralateral to) that of a brain injury.

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extinction

In neurology, neglect of information on one side of the body when it is presented simultaneously with similar information on the other side of the body

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is neglect just in the physical world?

no it can also occur in the mind

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Temporal (time) organization

Youu are planning what you need to do and when you need to do it. This kind of planning is the general function of the frontal lobes, especially the prefrontal cortex.

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Are people with frontal lobe injuries able to organize their behavior?

no

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perseveration

Tendency to emit repeatedly the same verbal or motor response to varied stimuli.

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mirror neuron

Cell in the primate premotor cortex that fires when an individual observes a specific action taken by another individual.

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where are "movement" neurons located?

located in the inferior frontal and posterior parietal cortex discharge when a monkey sees other monkeys make the same movements.

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difference between human and monkey mirror neurons

A major difference between humans and monkeys is that the mirror neurons are localized in the human left hemisphere. This unilateral representation may be significant for understanding how language is organized in the brain.

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cognitive neuroscience

Study of the neural bases of cognition.

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brain connectome

Map of the complete structural and functional neural connections of the human brain in vivo