escalating behavioral response to the repeated administration of a psychomotor stimulant such as amphetamine, cocaine, or nicotine; also called drug-induced behavioral sensitization.
Interaction among different plastic changes in the brain.
whats another name for behavioral sensitization?
drug-induced behavioral sensitization--> memory for a particular drug
what causes behavioral sensitization?
occurs with most psychoactive drugs, including amphetamine, cocaine, morphine, and nicotine
brain changes and psychoactive drugs
they were localized to such regions as the prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens that receive a large dopamine projection. Dopamine is believed to play a significant role in the rewarding properties of drugs
guiding principles of brain plasticity
1. Behavioral Change Reflects Change in the Brain 2. All Nervous Systems Are Plastic in the Same General Way 3. Plastic Changes Are Age-Specific 4. Prenatal Events Can Influence Brain Plasticity Throughout Life 5. Plastic Changes Are Brain-Region Dependent 6. Experience-Dependent Changes Interact 7. Plasticity Has Pros and Cons
traumatic brain injury (TBI)
Damage to the brain that results from a blow to the head.
Three legged cat solution
Behavioral compensation like this—a person learns to use the opposite hand to write—presupposes that some changes in the nervous system underlie this new skill.
What is one way to recover from TBI?
is for the brain to form new connections that allow it to “do more with less.
what are behavioral changes correlated with?
a dramatic increase in dendritic branching and spine density in the remaining, intact motor regions
replacing lost neurons
Unfortunately, in contrast with transplanted hearts or livers, transplanted brain tis- sue functions poorly. The procedure seems most suited to conditions in which a small number of functional cells are required, as in the replacement of dopamine-producing cells in Parkinson’s disease or in the replacement of suprachiasmatic cells to restore cir- cadian rhythms.
what does nerve growth factor stimulate?
dendritic growth and increased spine density in both normal and injured brains. These neuronal changes are correlated with improved motor function after stroke.
epidermal growth factor (EFG)
Neurotrophic factor that stimulates the subventricular zone to generate cells that migrate into the striatum and eventually differentiate into neurons and glia.
can you stimulate growth of new neurons to help with TBI?
is possible, therefore, that researchers could stimulate the generation of new neurons in intact regions of an injured brain. It is possible as well that the new neurons could help the brain develop new circuits to restore partial functioning.