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1

Photosynthesis

- the process that converts solar energy into chemical energy
- helps nourish the biosphere

2

Chloroplasts

found in plants
- use photosynthesis to capture light energy from the sun and convert it into stored sugars and organic molecules

3

Autotrophs

- are major producers of the biosphere that produce organic molecules from CO2

i.e. plants

4

2 types of Autotrophs

1) Photoautotrophs
2) Chemoautotrophs

5

Photoautotrophs

use the energy of sunlight to make organic molecules from water and CO2

i.e. plants

6

Chemoautotrophs

.

7

Heterotrophs

- live on organic compounds produced by other organism
- are the consumers of the biosphere

- i.e. animals, fungi, and many prokaryotes

8

Where photosynthesis occurs?

- plants
- algae
- certain other protists
- some prokaryotes

9

Chloroplasts

- the sites of photosynthesis in plants

- found in the mesophyll cells forming the tissues in the interior of the leaf

- the organelles in which photosynthesis occurs

10

Leaves of plants

major sites of photosynthesis

11

Chlorophyll

leaf color comes from this

12

Stomata

the pores in the leaf through which O2 and CO2 leave and enter

13

The composition of Chloroplasts

- 2 membranes around an aqueous space
- the stroma
- contain thylakoids and grana

14

Thylakoids

stacked into grana
contain the chlorophyll

15

Photosynthesis overview

6 CO2 + 12 H2O + Light source => Glucose + 6 O2 + 6 H2O

16

overall chemical reaction change during photosynthesis is the ...

- reverse of cellular respiration
- anabolic

17

Anabolic

energy (sugar synthesizing) reaction

18

Chloroplasts split ...

H2O => H2 + O2
- incorporating the electrons of H2 into sugar molecules

19

Photosynthesis is a redox reaction

H2O is oxidized
CO2 is reduced

20

2 stages of photosynthesis

1) The light (photo) reactions
2) The Calvin Cycle (synthesis)

21

1) The light (photo) reactions

- occurs in the grana,

- split H2O, release O2,

- produce ATP, and form NADPH

22

2) The Calvin Cycle (synthesis)

- occurs in the stroma

- Input: ATP, NADPH, CO2

-Output: Sugar, ADP + P + NADP+

(forms sugar from CO2, using ATP for energy and NADPH for reducing power)

23

Light Reaction convert...

solar energy to the chemical energy of ATP and NADPH

24

Light

- is a form of electromagnetic energy: which travels in waves

25

Wavelength

the distance between the crests of waves and determines the TYPE of electromagnetic energy

26

Visible Light Spectrum

includes colors of light we can see and the wavelengths that drives photosynthesis

27

Pigments

i.e. Chlorophyll a

- substances that absorb visible light and reflect the light that we see

28

Action-Spectrum
of a pigment profiles

the relative effectiveness of different wavelengths of radiation in driving photosynthesis

- 1st determined by Theodor W. Engelmann 1833

29

Chlorophyll a

the main photosynthetic pigment

30

Chlorophyll b

an accessory pigment