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Flashcards in Chapter 10 Deck (22):
1

Define motivation

A need or desire that energized and directs behavior

2

What is an instinct

A complex behavior that is rigidly patterned throughout a species and is unlearned

3

From where do motivations arise from?

Nature and nurture

4

What four perspectives do psychologist use to understand motivation

1. Instinct theory
2. Drive-reduction
3. Arousal theory
4. Hierarchy of Needs

5

Define drive-reduction theory

The idea that a physiological need creates an aroused tension state (a drive) that motivates an organism to satisfy the need

6

One way our bodies strive for homeostasis

Drive reduction

7

What is an incentive?

A positive or negative environmental stimulus that motivates behavior

8

What is the Yerkes- Dodson law?

The principle that performance increases with arousal only up to a point, beyond which performance decreases

9

What are self transcendence needs?

Need to find meaning and identity beyond the self

10

What is affiliation need?

The need to build relationships and to feel part of a group

11

Explain instinct theory

Genetic basis for unlearned, species-typical behavior

12

Explain drive reduction theory

Physiological needs create an aroused state that drives us to reduce the need

13

Explain arousal theory

Our need to maintain an optimal level of arousal motivates behaviors that meet no physiological need

14

What is ostracism?

Deliberate social exclusion of individuals or groups

15

What is autonomy?

A sense of personal control

16

Explain narcissism

Excessive self- love and self absorption

17

Define achievement motivation

A desire for significant accomplishment: for mastery of skills or ideas; for control; and for attaining a high standard

18

Who defined achievement motivation

Henry Murray

19

What is grit?

Passion and perseverance in the pursuit of long term goals

20

What is basal metabolic rate?

The body’s resting rate of energy expenditure

21

What is neophobia

Dislike of unfamiliar things

22

What are 5 situational influences in the ecology of eating?

1. Arousing appetite
2. Friends and food
3. Serving size is significant
4. Selections stimulate
5. Nudging nutrition