Flashcards in Chapter 10 Deck (22):
A need or desire that energized and directs behavior
What is an instinct
A complex behavior that is rigidly patterned throughout a species and is unlearned
From where do motivations arise from?
Nature and nurture
What four perspectives do psychologist use to understand motivation
1. Instinct theory
3. Arousal theory
4. Hierarchy of Needs
Define drive-reduction theory
The idea that a physiological need creates an aroused tension state (a drive) that motivates an organism to satisfy the need
One way our bodies strive for homeostasis
What is an incentive?
A positive or negative environmental stimulus that motivates behavior
What is the Yerkes- Dodson law?
The principle that performance increases with arousal only up to a point, beyond which performance decreases
What are self transcendence needs?
Need to find meaning and identity beyond the self
What is affiliation need?
The need to build relationships and to feel part of a group
Explain instinct theory
Genetic basis for unlearned, species-typical behavior
Explain drive reduction theory
Physiological needs create an aroused state that drives us to reduce the need
Explain arousal theory
Our need to maintain an optimal level of arousal motivates behaviors that meet no physiological need
What is ostracism?
Deliberate social exclusion of individuals or groups
What is autonomy?
A sense of personal control
Excessive self- love and self absorption
Define achievement motivation
A desire for significant accomplishment: for mastery of skills or ideas; for control; and for attaining a high standard
Who defined achievement motivation
What is grit?
Passion and perseverance in the pursuit of long term goals
What is basal metabolic rate?
The body’s resting rate of energy expenditure
What is neophobia
Dislike of unfamiliar things