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Flashcards in Chapter 7 Deck (19):
1

Define learning

The process of acquiring through experience new and relatively enduring information or behaviors

2

What is associative learning?

Learning that certain events occur together. The events may be two stimuli (as in classical conditioning) or a response and its consequences (as in operant conditioning)

3

Explain a stimulus

Any event or situation that evokes a response

4

Define respondent behavior

Behavior that occurs as an automatic response to some stimulus

5

Explain Operant behavior

Behavior that operates on the environment, producing consequences

6

What is cognitive learning?

The acquisition of mental information, whether by observing events, by watching others or through language

7

What is the process of learning associations?

Conditioning

8

Name two types of conditioning

Classical and operant

9

Define classical conditioning

A type of learning in which one learns to link two or more stimuli and anticipate events

10

Who was Pavlov and what did he do?

Presented a neural stimulus (a tone) just before an unconditioned stimulus (food in mouth). The neural stimulus then became a conditioned stimulus, producing a conditioned response

11

What is an unconditioned response? (UR)

In classical conditioning, an unlearned, naturally occurring response to an unconditioned stimulus (US)

12

Define Unconditioned stimulus

In classical conditioning, a stimulus that unconditionally- naturally and automatically- triggers an unconditioned response (UR)

13

Define conditioned response

In classical conditioning, a learned response to a previously neutral

14

Explain a conditioned stimulus

In classical conditioning, an originally irrelevant stimulus that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus (US) comes to trigger a conditioned response (CR)

15

The first step of classical conditioning, when NS becomes a CS, is called

Acquisition

16

When a US no longer follows the CS, and the CR becomes weakened, this is called

Extinction

17

Explain prosocial behavior

Positive, constructive, helpful behavior

18

Describe variable-interval schedules

Reinforcement of 1st response after varying time-periods

19

Give an example of variable-interval schedules

Re-checking email or Facebook