Flashcards in Chapter 7 Deck (19):
The process of acquiring through experience new and relatively enduring information or behaviors
What is associative learning?
Learning that certain events occur together. The events may be two stimuli (as in classical conditioning) or a response and its consequences (as in operant conditioning)
Explain a stimulus
Any event or situation that evokes a response
Define respondent behavior
Behavior that occurs as an automatic response to some stimulus
Explain Operant behavior
Behavior that operates on the environment, producing consequences
What is cognitive learning?
The acquisition of mental information, whether by observing events, by watching others or through language
What is the process of learning associations?
Name two types of conditioning
Classical and operant
Define classical conditioning
A type of learning in which one learns to link two or more stimuli and anticipate events
Who was Pavlov and what did he do?
Presented a neural stimulus (a tone) just before an unconditioned stimulus (food in mouth). The neural stimulus then became a conditioned stimulus, producing a conditioned response
What is an unconditioned response? (UR)
In classical conditioning, an unlearned, naturally occurring response to an unconditioned stimulus (US)
Define Unconditioned stimulus
In classical conditioning, a stimulus that unconditionally- naturally and automatically- triggers an unconditioned response (UR)
Define conditioned response
In classical conditioning, a learned response to a previously neutral
Explain a conditioned stimulus
In classical conditioning, an originally irrelevant stimulus that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus (US) comes to trigger a conditioned response (CR)
The first step of classical conditioning, when NS becomes a CS, is called
When a US no longer follows the CS, and the CR becomes weakened, this is called
Explain prosocial behavior
Positive, constructive, helpful behavior
Describe variable-interval schedules
Reinforcement of 1st response after varying time-periods