Flashcards in Chapter 4: Life Span Deck (22):
What is developmental psychology?
Examination of physical, cognitive, & social development
What three issues do developmental psychologist focus on?
1. Nature & Nurture
2. continuity & Stages
3. Stability & Change
What is a zygote?
What is an embryo?
• Developing human organism
• 2 weeks after fertilization through 2nd month
What is a fetus
• human organism from 9 weeks —> birth
• agents (viruses & drugs) can damage an embryo/fetus
What is Fetal Alcohol Syndrome?
Physical & cognitive abnormalities (children) caused by pregnant woman’s heavy drinking
Biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behavior
What is schema?
• concept/framework that organizes & interprets information
• interpreting our new experiences in terms of existing schemas
What is sensorimotor stage?
• Piaget’s theory
- birth to 2 yrs infants know the world in terms of their sensory impressions & motor activities
Object Permanence is defined as...
The awareness that things continue to exist even when not perceived
Piaget’s Theory describes Pre-operational stage as...
• 2-7 a child learns to use language but does not understand the mental operations of concrete logic
Concrete Operational Stage describes
• cognitive development
- 7-11 yr of age
- children gain mental operations that enable them to think logically
Formal Operational Stage explains
- begins around age 12
- people begin to think logically about abstract concepts
What are three parenting styles
1. Authoritarian: impose rules & expect obedience
2. Permissive: un-restraining
3. Authoritative: demanding & responsive
Erikson’s Stages of Psychosocial Development
- Infancy —> 1 yr. Trust vs. Mistrust
- Toddler Autonomy vs. shame & doubt
- Preschool. Initiative vs. guilt
- Elementary School Competence vs. inferiority
- adolescence. Identity vs role confusion
- young adult. Intimacy vs isolation
- middle age. Generativity vs stagnation
- late adulthood. Integrity vs. despair
Description of cross-sectional study
A study in which people of different ages are compared with one another
Longitudinal Study description
Research in which the same people are restudied and tested over a long period of time
Successful aging: Social Cultural Influences
• support from family & friends
• culture respect for aging
• sage living conditions
Successful aging: Biological Influences
• no genetic predisposition to early cognitive or physical decline
• appropriate nutrition