Chapter 4: Life Span Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 4: Life Span Deck (22):
1

What is developmental psychology?

Examination of physical, cognitive, & social development

2

What three issues do developmental psychologist focus on?

1. Nature & Nurture

2. continuity & Stages

3. Stability & Change

3

What is a zygote?

Fertilized egg

4

What is an embryo?

• Developing human organism

• 2 weeks after fertilization through 2nd month

5

What is a fetus

• human organism from 9 weeks —> birth

6

Describe tetrogens?

• agents (viruses & drugs) can damage an embryo/fetus

7

What is Fetal Alcohol Syndrome?

Physical & cognitive abnormalities (children) caused by pregnant woman’s heavy drinking

8

Explain Maturation

Biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behavior

9

What is schema?

• concept/framework that organizes & interprets information

10

Describe Assimilation?

• interpreting our new experiences in terms of existing schemas

11

What is sensorimotor stage?

• Piaget’s theory
- birth to 2 yrs infants know the world in terms of their sensory impressions & motor activities

12

Object Permanence is defined as...

The awareness that things continue to exist even when not perceived

13

Piaget’s Theory describes Pre-operational stage as...

• 2-7 a child learns to use language but does not understand the mental operations of concrete logic

14

Concrete Operational Stage describes

• cognitive development
- 7-11 yr of age
- children gain mental operations that enable them to think logically

15

Formal Operational Stage explains

- begins around age 12
- people begin to think logically about abstract concepts

16

What are three parenting styles

1. Authoritarian: impose rules & expect obedience

2. Permissive: un-restraining

3. Authoritative: demanding & responsive

17

Erikson’s Stages of Psychosocial Development

Stage: Issue:
- Infancy —> 1 yr. Trust vs. Mistrust

- Toddler Autonomy vs. shame & doubt

- Preschool. Initiative vs. guilt

- Elementary School Competence vs. inferiority

- adolescence. Identity vs role confusion

- young adult. Intimacy vs isolation

- middle age. Generativity vs stagnation

- late adulthood. Integrity vs. despair

18

Description of cross-sectional study

A study in which people of different ages are compared with one another

19

Longitudinal Study description

Research in which the same people are restudied and tested over a long period of time

20

Successful aging: Social Cultural Influences

• support from family & friends

• culture respect for aging

• sage living conditions

21

Successful aging: Biological Influences

• no genetic predisposition to early cognitive or physical decline

• appropriate nutrition

22

Successful Aging: Psychological Influences

•optimistic outlook

• physically & mentally active lifestyle