Chapter 3: Conciousness Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 3: Conciousness Deck (37):
1

What is Consciousness?

Our awareness of our selves and our environment

2

What is cognitive neuroscience

It’s the interdisciplinary study of the brain activity likens with cognition, thinking, memory, and language

3

What word describes “the focusing of consciousness awareness on a particular stimulus”?

Selective Attention

4

Describe Inattentional blindness

Failing to see visible objects when our attention is directed elsewhere

5

Change blindness is...

Failing to notice changes in the environment

6

Define dual processing

The principle that information is often simultaneously processed on separate conscious and unconscious tracks

7

What is blindsight

A condition in which a person can respond to a visual stimulus without consciously experiencing

8

Define parallel processing

The processing of many aspects of a problem simultaneously:the brain’s natural mode of information processing many functions

9

What is sleep?

Periodic, natural loss of consciousness

10

What does circadian rhythm do?

Regulates bodily rhythms that occur on 24-hour cycle

11

Describe REM sleep

Rapid eye movement sleep which is he stage where dreams occur

12

How many stages of sleep are there?

NREM 1

NREM 2

NREM 3

NREM 4

13

What is NREM 1

The slowing of breathing and irregular brain waves.

One can also experience hallucinations: “sensation of falling”

14

What is NREM 2

It’s when one is clearly asleep but can be awakened easily occurs with rapid, rhythmic brain wave activity

(About 20 minutes)

15

What is NREM 3?

This is considered deep sleep. Brain activity shows slow large waves. It’s hard to be awaken from this state of sleep

16

Final step of the sleep cycle?

REM

17

Why do we need sleep?

1. Protection

2. Recuperation

3. Restoration and Rebuilding of fading memories

4. Feeds creative thinking

5. Supports growth

18

Effects of sleep loss

• Depression

• Function below peak

• Gain Weight

• suppresses immune system

• slows reactions

• increased errors on visual attention

19

What are different type of sleeping disorders? What do they do?

• Insomnia- problems falling asleep/ staying asleep

• Narcolepsy- sudden attacks of overwhelming sleepiness

• Sleep Apnea- stop breathing while asleep

• Night Terrors: high arousal and appearance of being terrified ( occurs during NREM 3)

• Sleep Talking/Walking: childhood disorders

20

Describe REM Dreams?

vivid, emotional, & bizarre

21

Why do people dream?

• satisfy own wishes

• to file away memories

• develop & preserve neural pathways

• make sense of neural static

•reflect cognitive development

22

What was Freud’s dream theory?

• Dreams preserve sleep & provide

• expression of unacceptable feelings

• contain remembered content

• contain hidden message

23

Dream Theory: Information Processing

Sort out day’s events & consolidate memories

24

Dream Theories: Physiological Function:

• brain stimulation from REM sleep
• help develop & preserve neural pathways

25

Dream Theories: Neural Activation

Visual memories evokes by REM Neural activity

26

Dream Theories: Cognitive Development

•stimulate our lives
• reflect level of cognitive development

27

Describe psychoactive drug

Chemical substance that alters perceptions & moods

28

What is Substance use disorder?

Continued substance craving & use despite significant life disruption

29

When is a drug use a disorder?

• Diminished control of substance

• diminishes social functioning

• hazardous use

• drug Action

30

What are the three categories of psychoactive drugs?

1. Depressants

2. Stimulants

3. Hallucinogens

31

What are depressants, and what are their effect?

• drugs that reduce neural activity

• act as disinhibitor

•slow body functions

32

Name some examples of depressants

• Alcohol- increases harmful tendencies

•Opiates- pupils constrict, breathing slows, pleasure replacing pain & anxiety

•Barbiturates- tranquilizers

33

What are stimulants, and their effects?

•Excites neural activity & speeds up bodily functions

-pupils dilate
-heart & breathing rates increase
-blood sugar levels rise
-Energy rises

34

Examples of Stimulants

• caffeine

• nicotine

• cocaine

35

Disordered Drug Use: Social Cultural Influences

• difficult environment

• cultural acceptance of drug use

• negative peer influence

36

Disordered Drug Use: Biological Influences

• genetic predispositions

• variations in neurotransmitter systems

37

Disordered Drug Use: Psychological Influences

• lacking sense of purpose

• significant stress

•psychological disorders