Chapter 10 - Emotion and Motivation Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 10 - Emotion and Motivation Deck (205):
1

Emotion

Feelings that involve subjective evaluation, physiological processes, and cognitive beliefs

2

Emotion vs mood

Emotion = temporary, specific response to an environmental event
Mood = long-lasting emotional state

3

People who are over emotional or under emotional...

Tend to have psychological problems

4

Alexithymia

Causes people to not experience the subjective components of emotions

5

Primary emotions

They are evolutionarily adaptive, shared across cultures, and associated with specific physical states (fear, anger, sadness, disgust, happiness, and possibly surprise and contempt)

6

Circumplex model

Emotions are arranged in a circle with 2 core dimensions. Valence (horizontal) indicates how positive or negative emotions are. Activation indicates how arousing they are.

7

Arousal

Physiological activation )like increased brain activity) or increased autonomic responses (increased heart rate, sweating, muscle tension)

8

We can experience positive and negative emotions simultaneously!

.

9

Positive activation states are associated with...

An increase in dopamine

10

Negative activation states are associated with...

An increase in norepinephrine

11

Why do we cry?

When negative events leave us unable to respond behaviorally to the emotions we are feeling. We also cry when we are happy, but usually because an event makes us a bit sad at the same time (graduating from high school)

12

How is crying beneficial?

Crying relieves stress through activation of parasympathetic nervous system. Also crying brings about sympathy and social support.

13

Secondary emotions

Blends of primary emotions. These include remorse, guilt, submission, shame, and anticipation (you neglect your boyfriend and you're angry you're being accused and sad you hurt him, and that equals guilt!)

14

James-Lange Theory

In 1884, William James said that a person's PHYSICAL changes leads the person to feel an EMOTION

Physical change --> emotion

15

Elliot

He lost his emotions due to brain surgery, and then his life fell apart - he appeared to function normally, but he could no longer make decisions or learn from mistakes, had unhappy marriages, he lost his job, he had s lack of motivation

16

William James said we feel sorry because we cry, afraid because we tremble

Etc

17

Critique of James-Lange theory

Physical reactions are not specific enough to fully explain the subjective experiences of emotions

18

Support of James-Lange theory?

Studies in brain imaging found that different primary emotions produce different patterns of brain activation

19

More support of James-Lange: facial feedback hypothesis

If you mold your facial muscles to mimic an emotional state, you activate the associated emotion

20

James Laird tested the facial feedback hypothesis by taking pics of ppl holding a pencil between their teeth or upper lip and had people rate the pictures in terms of how funny they were. What happened?

Ppl thought the ones holding the pencil in their teeth, like in a smile, were the funniest

21

Cannon-Bard theory

Emotion and physical reaction roughly happen together, independent of one another. For ex, when a grizzly bear threatens you, you feel afraid and heart rate goes up at the same time

22

Cannon-bard said the body is slower to experience emotion and the mind is faster

Etc

23

Cannon said Many emotions produce similar bodily responses. And...

This makes it hard to determine quickly what emotion you're experiencing

24

What is the limbic system?

James Papez proposed that many subcortical brain regions were involved in emotion. Paul McLean expanded this list and called it the limbic system

25

Criticism to limbic system

We now know that many structures outside of the limbic system are involved in emotion

26

For understanding emotion, what are the two most important brain regions?

The amygdala and prefrontal cortex

27

What does the amygdala do?

The amygdala processes the emotional significance of stimuli and generates immediate emotional and behavioral reactions

28

What else about the amygdala?

Helps with classical conditioning learning (fear learning) and helps protect us against danger

29

Information reaches the amygdala in 2 separate pathways. What are they?

1. Quickly - the "quick and dirty sensory info (sensory info goes from thalamus to amygdala)
2. Slower - with more deliberate evaluation (sensory info goes from thalamus to cortex to amygdala)

30

Emotional events are likely to be __

Stored in memory - amygdala helps with this

31

The amygdala modifies how the hippocampus consolidates memory. Why is this helpful?

Helps us remember fearful situations and avoid them in the future

32

What else does the amygdala do?

It is involved in the perception of social stimuli (detecting emotional meanings of other ppl's facial expressions)

33

The amygdala reacts the most to seeing a person with a fearful face. This is becuz well, who knows what the person is afraid of? It might be a threat to you too. It's ambiguous

Etc

34

What facial expression does the amygdala react the most to?

A fearful expression

35

If the amygdala is damaged, what happens?

Social impairments

36

Ppl with damage to amygdala....

Are friendly to strangers, have trouble gauging someone's trustworthiness, etc

37

Summary of amygdala

The amygdala processes the emotional significance of stimuli and generates immediate emotional and behavioral reactions. It is associated with emotional learning, memory of emotional events, and the interpretation of facial expressions of emotion.

38

Prefrontal cortex hemispheres/cerebral asymmetry

Greater activation of the right prefrontal cortex is associated with negative affect. Greater activation of the left prefrontal cortex is associated with positive affect. Right = negative. Left = positive THIS PATTERN IS KNOWN AS CEREBRAL ASYMMETRY

39

People can be ___ in one cerebral cortex hemisphere

Dominant

40

People who are left hemisphere dominant...

Tend to move their eyes to the right

41

Schachter-Singer Two Factor Theory

According to this theory, a person experiences physiological changes, applies a cognitive label to explain those changes, and translates that label into an emotion.

42

Ex of Schachter-Singer 2 factor theory

You see a grizzly bear and your heart rate goes up and you sweat. You look at the context, label those bodily reactions as responses to the bear, and realize you're experiencing fear.

43

Schachter-Singer experiment?

2 groups of ppl are given a vaccine.. But it's actually adrenaline. (And some ppl don't actually receive adrenaline, they recieve a placebo.. But that's kinda irrelevant)Group 1 is told they will feel excited and aroused after taking the drug. Group 2 is not. The 2 groups are put into separate rooms with a confederate. The confederate in the 1st INFORMED group is all happy, and the first group is like oh well, these are just the effects of the drug. The confederate in the 2nd UNINFORMED group is all happy and the second group is like woah I feel happy cuz my heart's pounding and I feel aroused and this guy is all happy and he must be making me happy. (Supports schachter singer theory). They also had an angry confederate which showed the same idea but with anger

44

Misattribution of arousal and bridge experiment

Physical states caused by a situation can be attributed to the wrong emotion. For example, a study was done on a swinging bridge vs a sturdy bridge. Men who went down the swinging bridge and saw the woman offer her phone number were more likely to call her and ask her on a date. This is because the guys think they're attracted to her because they feel sweaty and their heart rate goes up. But really they're just feeling adrenaline because of the swinging bridge. The guys on the sturdy bridge were less likely to call.

45

Criticism of the bridge-woman study?

Maybe men who crossed the less stable bridge were more likely to take risks and ask women on dates

46

Excitation transfer

Residual physiological arousal caused by 1 event is transferred to a new stimulus. After exercising you see a hot guy and think you're attracted to him. But really it's just the residual after effects of exercise.

47

In order to regulate our emotions, what is something we do?

We put ourselves in certain situations and avoid other situations. For ex., you don't go to your sister's soccer game if you're jealous of her soccer skills zzz

48

How else do we manage our emotional state?

We focus our attention on certain aspects of situations - if you're on a plane and afraid of flying, distract yourself by reading

49

Reappraisal

Reappraise an event in a different way. If you're scared of a scary movie, remind yourself that they're all just actors, not ghosts

50

Good ways to regulate mood and bad ways to regulate mood?

Good ways: humor and distraction
Bad ways: thought suppression and rumination

51

Humor

It stimulates endocrine secretion, improved immune system, and stimulates the release of hormones like dopamine and endorphins. It mimics the affects of physical exercise

52

Thought suppression

Trying not to feel or respond to emotion at all

53

Rebound effect

This happens after thought suppression. It means you think more about something AFTER suppression than before.

54

Rumination

Thinking about, elaborating, and focusing on undesired thoughts or feelings. This response prolongs the mood and impedes successful mood regulation strategies. (Not good nt)

55

Distraction

Doing something other than the troubling activity, or thinking about something other than the troubling thought. Distraction can help, but also can be bad if you binge drink or overeat to distract yourself, or if you end up thinking about other problems as a way of distraction.

56

Emotions are adaptive. For ex they prepare and guide successful behaviors like running from a threat

Etc

57

Goal

A desired outcome, usually associated with some specific object or some future behavioral intention

58

Charles Darwin says emotions are adaptive because they communicate how we are feeling. Facial expressions help us predict other ppl's behavior and see what other ppl think of us

Etc

59

What are the 2 main areas that communicate emotional information?

The eyes and mouth

60

Which is better for interpreting emotion when seeing the whole face?

Mouth

61

However, when presented with pics of just eyes or just mouths, ppl are better at determining info from the...

Eyes

62

Darwin said that the face communicates emotions to others and that these emotions are understandable by....

All people, regardless of culture

63

Researchers have done experiments with like ppl in New Guinea (kinda isolated) and they predicted emotions from facial expressions well

Etc

64

Ppl are best at determining ___ from facial expressions across cultures

Happiness. Ppl have trouble determining fear and disgust tho

65

Research suggests that pride responses are innate too. (Blind athletes showed pride similar to no blind athletes)

Etc

66

Display rules

Rules learned through socialization that dictate which emotions are suitable to given situations

67

Differences in display rules explain different stereotypes (loud and obnoxious Americans, the cold and bland English, etc.)

Etc

68

Display rules differ between women and men in cultures... Elaborate

Women display emotions more readily, more frequently, easily, and intensely! Men show dominance, defensiveness, and competitiveness

69

Why do women show emotion more readily?

It's actually evolutionarily adaptive. Women are thought to be nurturing, warm caregivers

70

Tho women show more emotion, do they feel more emotion than men?

No, not necessarily.

71

Emotions and cognitive functions are interconnected. We don't just see a house, we see a handsome house, an ugly house. Emotions color our perceptions

Etc

72

Our decisions are affected by emotions

Etc

73

How do emotions affect decision making?

We anticipate our future emotional states and that influences our decisions. Emotions serve as heuristic guides.

74

In decision making, emotions cause us to make risk judgments. What are those?

Risk judgments = 9/11 happened and you decide not to fly on a plane for a few years

75

Affect-as-information theory

We use our current moods to make judgments and appraisals, even if we do not know the sources of our moods. For ex, ask someone how satisfied they are with their life, and they'll just say they're satisfied if they're in a good mood rather than reflecting on their life totally

76

If ppl are aware of the sources of their moods, their feelings have less influence over their judgments

.

77

Somatic markers

Bodily reactions that arise from the emotional evaluation of an action's consequences. For example, when you see a speed limit sign and you see you're going way over and think oh jeez, I might get pulled over, your heart rate goes up

78

Elliot did not have somatic markers. He did not use past outcomes to regulate future behavior. For instance, a gambler with Elliot's condition, would continue to use a risky move. They don't experience increased arousal and thus fear.

.

79

When we interact with others...

We use emotional expression as powerful nonverbal communications

80

Although infants can't talk, they can express their emotions through body language

.

81

The need to belong in a group?

Humans have a better chance of survival if they are in a group. We have an evolutionary need to be in a group. Therefore, ppl are very sensitive to anything that might lead them to be kicked out of a group.

82

Guilt strengthens social bonds

Guilt occurs when someone feels responsible for another person's negative state. Guilt can arise even if we did not directly cause the negative state (being a survivor while everyone else died).

83

3 ways in which guilt helps interpersonal relationships?

1. Feelings of guilt discourage ppl from doing things that would harm their relationships (cheating on their partners) and encourage behaviors that strengthen relationships 2. Displays of guilt demonstrate that ppl care about their relationship partners 3. Guilt is a tactic we can use to manipulate other ppl.. Kids can use guilt to get parents to buy them presents.

84

Evidence indicates that socialization is more important than biology in determining how kids experience guilt

.

85

Feelings of guilt arise in ___

Happy, healthy relationships

86

People who look embarrassed after wrongdoings elicit from people more ___

Sympathy, forgiveness, amusement, laughter

87

Blushing also elicits forgiveness in others

.

88

Darwin believed blushing was adaptive

.

89

Emotions are a primary source of motivation. Why?

We seek activities and actions that make us FEEL good

90

Four qualities of motivational states

1. Motivational states are ENERGIZING and STIMULATING. Motivational states cause you to do something
2. Motivational states are directive. They guide you to a specific goal/need. Hunger motivates you to eat!
3. Motivational states make us persist in our behaviors until you achieve the goal. The motivation to eat causes an animal to keep searching for something to kill.
4. Motivational states differ in strength depending on internal and external forces

91

Motivation

The factors that energize, direct, or sustain behavior

92

Need

A state of deficiency, which can be either biological (water) or social (you are an extrovert that needs to be around people a lot)

93

Needs lead to ____

Goal-directed behaviors. Failure to satisfy a particular need leads to psychosocial or physical impairment

94

Maslow believed that ppl are driven by many needs....

To experience personal growth, we must fulfill our biological needs, feel safe and secure, feel loved, and have a good opinion of ourselves

95

Humanistic psychology

This school views people as striving toward personal fulfillment (we are always trying to improve ourselves)

96

Self-actualization

Self-actualization occurs when someone achieves his/her personal dreams and aspirations and is living up to their true potential and is truly happy.

97

What is Maslow's Hierarchy?

Maslow's arrangement of needs, in which basic survival needs must be met before people can satisfy higher needs.
1. Self-actualization (achieving your dreams, living to full potential)
2. Esteem (good self-opinion, accomplishments, reputation)
3. Belonging and love (acceptance and friendship and family)
4. Safety (protection from threats)
5. Physiological needs (hunger, thirst, sleep)

98

Criticism of Maslow's Hierarchy?

Maslow's hierarchy lacks empirical support.
-Self-actualization may not be required for happiness
-some ppl that like being left alone and don't receive much love and friendship, are successful

99

Drive

A psychological state that, by creating arousal, motivates an organism to satisfy a need

100

Homeostasis

The tendency for bodily functions to maintain equilibrium

101

Through homeostasis, when people are too warm or too cold, brain mechanisms initiate responses to cool the body (sweating) or warm the body (shivering)

.

102

When you're deprived of some need, a drive increases in proportion to the amount of deprivation

The hungrier you are, the more you are driven to find food

103

Habit

If a behavior continually reduces a drive, it becomes a habit

104

Example of a habit?

Watching cute animal videos when stressed

105

Incentives

External objects or external goals that motivate behaviors

106

Example of an incentive?

Getting a good grade on an exam is an incentive for studying hard

107

Even unconscious forces can provide incentives for us to behave in certain ways (commercials for smoking might motivate a smoker to smoke)

.

108

Preschoolers who were exposed to food advertising ate 45% more food than those that didn't

.

109

Yerkes-Dodson Law

Performance increased with arousal up to an optimal point, and then decreases with increasing arousal (too much arousal is bad for your performance!!!)

110

Students perform best on exams with moderate anxiety

.

111

Too little anxiety makes us...

Can make you feel inattentive and unmotivated

112

Too much anxiety can...

Interfere with your thinking ability and make you overwhelmed

113

Pleasure principle

A term by Freud: states that people are driven to seek pleasure and avoid pain

114

Hedonism

Humans' desire for pleasantness.

115

Hedonism/pleasure principle explains why we keep engaging in sex

.

116

What does the pleasure principle explain?

It explains why people engage in behaviors that don't necessarily satisfy biological needs (eating when you're not hungry)

117

Extrinsic motivation

Motivation to perform an activity because of the external goals toward which that activity is desired

118

Intrinsic motivation

Motivation to perform an activity because of the value or pleasure associated with that activity rather than for an apparent external goal or purpose.

119

Creativity

The tendency to generate ideas or alternatives that may be useful in solving problems, communicating, and entertaining ourselves and others

120

Intrinsically motivated behaviors...

Satisfy our natural curiosity and creativity. Like playful exploration - solving a puzzle for the fun of it, making art for enjoyment

121

Evidence suggests that extrinsic rewards undermine intrinsic motivation

!

122

Self-determination theory

People are motivated to satisfy needs for competence, relatedness to others, and autonomy, which is a sense of personal control. Self-determination theory argues that extrinsic rewards may reduce intrinsic value because such rewards undermine people's feeling that they are choosing to do something for themselves. In contrast, feelings of autonomy and competence make people feel good about themselves and inspire them to do their most creative work.

123

Self-perception theory

People are not usually aware of their specific motives. When ppl can't come up with an external explanation for their behaviors, they say that they simply like the behaviors they're doing. Rewarding ppl for engaging in an activity makes them realize they performed the activity for the reward of it - not just for fun. Therefore without the reward they have no reason to engage in the behavior. The reward has replaced the goal of pure pleasure

124

Psychosocial needs

Developed by Henry Murray. He proposed 27 basic psychosocial needs, including needs for power, autonomy, achievement, and play.

125

The study of psychosocial needs made us figure out what?

People are especially motivated by personal goals

126

Self-regulation

Self-regulation is the process by which people change their behavior to attain personal goals.

127

What is the best kind of goal?

Challenging, but not overly difficult, and specific goals are best

128

Too easy or too hard goals can undermine motivation

.

129

Self-efficacy

The expectancy that your efforts will lead to success

130

If you have low self efficacy, you will be unmotivated

.

131

Achievement motive

The desire to do well relative to the standards of excellence. Students high in achievement set challenging but attainable personal goals while those low in achievement set extremely easy or impossibly high goals

132

What is a challenge in self regulation?

Postponing immediate gratification in the pursuit of long-term goals. For ex, staying home and studying instead of partying in grad school

133

Give kids a preferred food item and tell them they can have more if they don't eat it --> marshmallow test

This tests whether kids can delay gratification

134

How did the kids refrain from eating the marshmallow?

They distracted themselves, through singing or not looking at the marshmallow for example

135

Turning hot cognitions into cold cognitions?

Mentally transforming the desired object into something undesired.

136

Hot cognitions

Hot cognitions focus on the rewarding, pleasurable aspects of objects.

137

Cold cognitions

Cold cognitions focus on conceptual or symbolic meanings

138

Explain hot cognitions to cold cognitions in marshmallow study

The kids imagined the marshmallows as clouds

139

Need to belong theory

The theory that the need for interpersonal attachments is a fundamental motive that has evolved for adaptive purposes

140

Need to belong idea is evolutionary adaptive

.

141

Evidence shows ppl feel anxious when facing exclusion from their social groups

.

142

People who are shy worry the most about social evaluation and pay much more attention to social information

.

143

Stanley Schachter experiment - he told a group of ppl he'd give them a painful shock and said they have a 10 minute waiting period before the shock where thy could either be alone or be with other people. Most of the people decided to be with other people. Significance of this?

The people were very anxious and they decided to be with other people: shows when we experience high anxiety, we want to be around other people

144

The study also showed that the unhappy people wanted to be with other people experiencing the shock - not with people who were not experiencing the shock

Miserable ppl like being with miserable ppl

145

Leon Festinger's social comparison theory

We are motivated to have accurate information about ourselves and others. We compare ourselves with those around us to test and validate personal beliefs and emotional responses.

146

We have been classically conditioned to eat at regular mealtimes

.

147

Humans tend to eat much more when various foods are available than when only one or two types of food are available

.

148

Sensory-specific satiety

Animals quickly grow tired of any one flavor of food

149

The region of the frontal lobes that is involved in assessing the reward value of food exhibits decreased activity when the same food is eaten over and over again

.

150

What we eat has little to do with logic and everything to do with what we believe is food. In Zaire, they eat termites and they're healthy, but US people find that gross

.

151

People avoid unfamiliar foods - this was adaptive to survival in an evolutionary sense

.

152

Cuisine

Local norms for what to eat and how to prepare it

153

What brain structure influences eating the most?

The hypothalamus

154

What happens if there is damage to the hypothalamus?

You're more likely to become obese

155

If the middle region of the hypothalamus is damaged, you become obese. If the outer/lateral region of the hypothalamus is damaged, you eat a lot less than normal

.

156

Gourmand syndrome

This is caused by damage to the limbic system or the right frontal lobes. In gourmand syndrome, people become obsessed with the quality and variety of food and how food is prepared.

157

Glucostatic theory

The bloodstream is monitored for its glucose levels.

158

Lipostatic theory

Proposes a set point for body fat. When an animal loses body fat, hunger signals motivate eating to return to set point

159

Leptin

A hormone involved in fat regulation

160

Ghrelin

A hormone in the stomach that triggers eating

161

Until the 1940s, it was believed that women did not enjoy sex and were not motivated to have sex

.

162

Masturbation is common in both sexes and women enjoy orgasms too

.

163

Sexual response cycle

A 4-stage pattern of physiological and psychological responses during sexual activity

164

What are the stages of the sexual response cycle?

1. Excitement phase - when ppl contemplate sexual activity or begin kissing/touching
2. Plateau phase - pulse rate, breathing, and blood pressure increase
3. Orgasm phase - involuntary muscle contractions, increases in breathing/heart rate
4. Resolution phase - a release of sexual tension and a return to a normal state of arousal. Men are temporarily unable to have an orgasm or erection at this phase, but women don't have a resolution phase.

165

Hormones are involved in producing and terminating sexual behavior.

.

166

In many species, females are only sexually receptive when they're fertile

.

167

Sex hormones are released from where?

The gonads (ovaries or testes)

168

What kind of hormones do males have?

Males have androgens and testosterone

169

What kind of hormones do females have?

Estrogen and progesterone and testosterone

170

Oxytocin

A hormone released during sexual arousal and orgasm

171

What is the brain region most important for stimulating sexual behavior?

The hypothalamus.. Because it controls the release of hormones and hormones are definitely involved in sex!

172

What are some neurotransmitters involved in sex?

Dopamine - involved in the physical experience of pleasure
Serotonin - also involved in sex
Nitric oxide - critical for sexual behavior

173

In men, hormones are released at the same rate over time. In women, the release of hormones varies according to a cycle that repeats itself every 28 days

.

174

Studies show that women evaluate men differently across the menstrual cycle

.

175

Studies indicate viewing erotic images activates reward regions in the brain, like the limbic system

.

176

When men saw opposite sex nudes, their amygdala was activated

.

177

Sexual scripts

Cognitive beliefs about how a sexual episode should be enacted

178

Double standard

Certain activities (premarital or casual sex) are morally and socially acceptable for men to do, but not women

179

Men have higher motivation for sex than women do

.

180

Erotic plasticity

The extent that sex drive can be shaped by social, cultural, and situational factors

181

Women have a higher erotic plasticity than men

.

182

Women are more likely to be cautious about having sec because having offspring is a much more intensive commitment for them than it is for men

.

183

Sexual strategies theory

A theory that maintains that women and men have evolved distinct mating strategies because they have faced different adaptive problems over the course of human history. The strategies used by each sex maximize the probability of passing along their genes to future generations. For example, women perform intensive care over a small amount of infants

184

Women are much more likely to be cautious about having sex than men because women can become pregnant of course

.

185

In seeking mates, both men and women don't want insensitive ppl with bad manners, or loud ppl

.

186

What do females want?

Considerate, honest, dependable, kind, and understanding men, liked by others, career oriented, fairly tall, from a good family

187

What do men care about in a woman?

Good looks, cooking skills, and sexual faithfulness

188

What are men and women most concerned about in a partner?

Men = good looks in partner
Women = value partner in a good financial position

189

Women view attractiveness as a luxury, but men view attractiveness as a necessity

...

190

Women who see themselves as attractive want a man with status and good looks - they want it all

.

191

Until 1973, psychiatrists viewed homosexuality as a mental illness

.

192

Studies suggest that exposure to hormones in the prenatal environment might play a role in determining one's sexual orientation

.

193

Males with older brothers are more likely to be gay

.

194

It's unclear how human sexual orientation might be encoded in genes

.

195

The hypothalamus might be involved in determining homosexuality

.

196

Evidence is insufficient to establish a casual connection between brain regions and sexual orientation

.

197

Evidence is consistent that biological processes play some role in sexual orientation tho

.

198

Daryl Bem's theory of homosexuality is that what is different is attractive. If we see members of our own sex as different from us, we are attracted to them.

.

199

No good evidence suggests that sexual orientation can be changed through therapy

.

200

Few psychologists believe sexual orientation is a choice or can be changed

.

201

Drive

A psychological state that by creating arousal, motivates an organism to satisfy a need

202

Self-regulation

The process by which people change their behaviors to achieve personal goals

203

Hypothalamus

Is the brain structure that most influences eating AND the brain region most important for stimulating sexual behavior

204

Sexual strategies theory

A theory that maintains that women and men have evolved distinct mating strategies because they have faced different adaptive problems over the course of human history. The strategies used by each sex maximize the probability of passing along their genes to their future generations

205

What kind of stuff have researchers suggested about explaining homosexuality?

Prenatal hormone exposure, genes, and functional differences in the hypothalamus may influence sexual orientation