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Flashcards in Chapter 12 - Social Psychology Deck (282):

Why did Abu Ghraib happen?

The guards who brutalized the Iraqi prisoners were normal people, but they were in an overwhelming situation. In the prison, there was an unclear chain of command and a diffusion of responsibility.. Some soldiers expected to be there for a shorter period of time and now they were stationed in an overcrowded prison. The guards were working long hours in extremely hot temperatures and frequently under mortar attack. During wartime, the soldiers likely saw everything as "us" and "them" and members of the opposing group were dehumanized.


A study was done that made Stanford students be the guards and the prisoners in a mock prison. The guards shockingly ended up being brutal and sadistic. They had the prisoners engage in meaningless tasks



The guards at Abu Grahib believed it was there job to "soften up" the prisoners before interrogation and that was another reason behind their brutal behavior



When people act brutal and sadistic, we...

Assume that they are brutal and sadistic. We don't consider the situation in which they have acted brutally and sadistically.


We have to understand that many behaviors..

Become more understandable within particular contexts


What do our interactions with people do?

They shape who we are and how we understand the world


Social psychology

It is concerned with how people influence other people's thoughts, feelings, and actions.


Almost every human activity has a ______

Social dimension


Research in social psychology reveals what?

Humans are not inherently flawed or evil. They are distinct individuals who are powerfully influenced by social context


Because we are social animals, humans live in ____



Why do humans live in groups?

Groups provide security from predators and competing groups, mating opportunities, assistance in hunting and gathering food, etc.


Mechanisms have evolved for distinguishing....

Members of one's group from members of another group, as well as detecting dangers from within the group such as deception, coercion, and infidelity


We constantly make social judgments and determine whether people are friends or foes, trustworthy, unreliable, honest, etc



We automatically classify people into ___

Social categories


Our long term evaluations of people are heavily influenced by our _____

First impressions


Nonverbal behavior

The facial expressions, gestures, mannerisms, and movements by which one communicates with others


People can make accurate judgments by...

Observing someone for only a few seconds


Thin slices of behavior

Making quick judgments about someone by watching their nonverbal behavior


Videotapes of judges giving instructions to juries reveal that a judge'so nonvernal actions can predict whether a jury will find someone guilty or not guilty



Explain Abu Ghrahib

During 2003, American soldiers brutalized Iraqi detainees at Abu Ghrahib. The soldiers raped prisoners, beat them, stripped them, and put them in humiliating positions, and made them perform sex



How people walk


People with what kind of gait are seen as happy?

People with a bounce in their step who walk while swinging their arms are seen as happy.


People who are hostile have what kind of gait?

They take short steps while stopped over


People who are angry have what kind of gait?

Taking long strides with heavy steps


Remember these are just how people perceive their gaits (oops should have clarified that)



The first thing we notice about another person is what?

Their face!


The face communicates what?

Emotional state, interest, and distrust, anger, or flirtation


What is important in social situations?

Eye contact!


How do we perceive eye contact?

It depends on our culture. In the US, we seek to make eye contact - if the other person doesn't meet our eyes we see them as embarrassed, ashamed, or lying.


However, in certain Native American tribes, eye contact is considered disrespectful




People's explanations for why events or actions occur, including other people's behaviors


Why are we motivated to make attributions?

We are motivated to draw inferences in part by a basic need for both order and predictability. The world is an unpredictable place where many unexpected things happen. We prefer to think that things happen for a reason and therefore so that we can anticipate future events.


Just world hypothesis

In this view of the world, you believe the victims of bad things did something to deserve the bad things. For ex., a girl got raped because she asked for it. For ex., a victim of illness did something bad to become ill.


Personal attributions

Explanations that refer to people's internal characteristics, such as abilities, traits, moods, or efforts. These are also known as internal or dispositional attributions


Situational attributions

Also known as external attributions.. These explanations refer to outside events such as luck, accidents, or the actions of other people.


Attributions can be...

Stable over time (permanent) or unstable (temporary) OR controllable or uncontrollable


In making attributions about our own behavior, what do we do?

We tend to have a SELF-SERVING bias. We attribute our failures to situational, unstable, or uncontrollable factors in a way that casts us in a positive light and we attribute our successes to personal, permanent factors in a way that gives us credit for doing well.


Example of self-serving bias?

If you do well on a test, you say it's because you're smart - intelligence is a characteristic you possess. If you fail a test, it's because you didn't get enough sleep or the professor made a bad exam


Fundamental attribution error

When explaining other people's behavior, we tend to overemphasize the importance of personality traits and underestimate the importance of situation. People try to draw inferences about others and make attributions about events.. For example, when someone drives badly, we assume they're a bad driver instead of assuming they're just having an off day because of something personal


Correspondence bias

Emphasizes our tendency to expect the behaviors of others to correspond with our own beliefs and personalities.


In contrast to the fundamental attribution error, we... But

When we make assumptions about ourselves, we tend to focus on situations rather than on our personal traits/dispositions


Actor/observer discrepancy

When interpreting our own behavior, we tend to focus on situations. When interpreting other people's behavior, we tend to focus on their personal dispositions. For instance, we say our lateness is due to external factors like traffic. But we say other people's lateness is because they're lazy/irresponsible.


Do eastern countries follow the fundamental attribution error??

No, eastern countries are more holistic in how they perceive the world and other people. Eastern people use more information to make attributions about people in comparison to Western people


Although easterners are more likely than westerners to take situational forces into account, they still tend to favor personal information rather than situational information when making attributions about others.!



Explain stereotyping

They're based on mental schemas (structures that help us organize information about ppl based on their membership to certain groups). They are the result of heuristic thinking. Stereotyping occurs automatically and outside of our awareness.


Are stereotypes neutral

Yes. They simply reflect efficient cognitive processes


Some stereotypes are based in truth



What are the two basic reasons for stereotyping others?

1. They allow us to streamline our formation of impressions
2. They help us deal with the limitations inherent in mental processing


Stereotypes affect the formation of _____



Once we form stereotypes, we...

Maintain them by a number of processes


How are stereotypes maintained?

1. Stereotypes guide attention towards information that confirms the stereotype and away from disco firming evidence.
2. Our memories are biased to match stereotypes



When we encounter someone who does not fit a stereotype, we put that person in a special category rather than alter the stereotype.


Example of Subtyping

You meet a black successful person and label them as the exception to your stereotype that blacks are lazy people


Self-fulfilling prophecy

People's tendency to behave in ways that confirm their own or others' expectations


Study done for the self-fulfilling prophecy?

Teachers were given a list of students who would have increased IQs during the school year. These students were chosen completely at random, but the teachers didn't know that. These students were labeled "bloomers." The bloomers got higher IQs over the course of the school year because the teachers gave them extra attention and encouragement. The teachers' expectations turned into reality


Another ex of self fulfilling prophecy?

Men were talking to various women on the phone, and beforehand they were shown supposed photos of the women, some attractive, some unattractive. The men who thought they were talking to an attractive woman rated them as more sociable, poised, and humorous. Then outside ppl listened in on the conversation without seeing photos. It turns out the women attributed to attractive photos seemed more engaging and pleasant to them too! It was because the men's behavior helped confirm the stereotypes by bringing out behaviors in the women associated with our perceptions of what attractive and unattractive people are like.


Stereotype threat

When women have to indicate whether they are male or female on a test, saying they're female affects their score because they unconsciously believe that women are not as smart than men due to stereotypes


Why is stereotype threat decrease performance?

1. Physiological stress affects people's prefrontal functioning
2. People tend to think about their performances and this thinking distracts them from the tasks
3. People attempt to suppress negative thoughts and emotions, and this suppression requires a great deal of effort



Negative feelings, opinions, and beliefs associated with a stereotype



The inappropriate and unjustified treatment of people as a result of prejudice


What is responsible for a lot of conflict and warfare around the world?

Prejudice and discrimination


Why do stereotypes so often lead to prejudice and discrimination?

Researchers theorized that only certain types of people are prejudiced, that people treat others as scapegoats to relieve the tensions of daily living, and that people discriminate against others to protect their own self esteem.


What evolutionary stuff helps stereotypes, prejudice, and discrimination continue?

We evolutionarily tend to favor our groups over other groups, and we tend to stigmatize those who pose threats to our groups



Groups that we belong to



Groups that we don't belong to


Does group membership affect our social identity?

Yes, it is an important part of our social identity and contributes to our overall self esteem


People are predisposed to be wary of others who do not belong to their own group



When does the separation of people into Ingroup and outgroup members occur?

Early in development - 6 year olds show as much a racial bias as white adults


Outgroup homogeneity effect

According to this, we tend to view outgroup members as less varied than Ingroup members.


Ingroup favoritism

The tendency for people to evaluate favorably and privilege members of the Ingroup more than members of the outgroup.


Ex of Ingroup favoritism

We are more willing to do favors for people in our Ingroup


Even when you're assigned into groups for like, a school project, you treat Ingroup members more favorably



Why do people value members of their own group in an evolutionary sense?

Personal survival depends on group survival


Ingroup favoritism when it comes to women?

Women show a much greater automatic Ingroup bias toward other women than men do toward other men


Why do women show an Ingroup bias towards other women?

Women can freely express their affection for their female friends whereas men don't like to do that with their male friends too much. Women also depend on other women for nurturing


In a computer stimulation where you have to shoot ppl holding weapons, but avoid civilians holding non-weapons, what happened?

People shoot black civilians holding non weapons just because of racial bias


Do stereotypes occur consciously?

No, they occur unconsciously without people's awareness or intent


What's an example of how we can override black stereotypes?

Being presented positive examples of black individuals


In everyday life, what does it feel like to try to inhibit stereotypical thinking?

It's difficult and requires self control


What happens in the brain when we try to inhibit stereotypical thinking?

The frontal lobes have to override the emotional responses associated with amygdala activity. The frontal lobes are important for controlling thoughts and behavior while the amygdala is involved in detecting potential threats


Since when have social psychologists tried to alleviate prejudice between groups?



How can ppl overcome prejudice?

By working together toward a greater purpose - like how everyone helped out with the earthquake in Haiti


Ex of outgroup hostility: 5th grade boys at a camp were divided into 2 groups and competed in games. What happened?

Animosity between groups and violence


How did the boys end up bonding and getting along?

Working together for a common goal; a truck broke down and the boys (both groups) had to help push it


What increases hostility between groups

Seeing the other group as strangers, being isolated from the other group, and competition with the other group


What helps groups cooperate and respect one another?

Working together and superordinate goals


What are superordinate goals?

Goals that require people to cooperate - these goals reduce hostility between groups when they work together


Two groups working together to achieve a common goal become one big group



How else can we reduce prejudice?

Be aware of your prejudice - training people about stereotypical associations helps reduce them


The programs that most successfully bring groups together are what?

Person-to-person interactions


Communal work toward superordinate goals can reduce prejudice and benefit all the workers.



Explain jigsaw classroom

In the 1970s, a man had students work together in a mixed race or mixed sex groups where each member of the group was an expert on one aspect of the assignment. The jigsaw classroom showed a more positive treatment of ppl of other ethnicities afterward


Are stereotypes always a bad thing?

No. Stereotypes can be positive, neutral, or negative


How can we reduce prejudice?

Present ppl with positive information about members of negatively stereotypes groups and requiring members of different groups to work cooperatively towards superordinate goals



People's evaluations of objects, events, or ideas


How are attitudes shaped?

They are shaped by social context and they play an important role in how we evaluate and interact with other people


What do we have attitudes about?

All sorts of things - mundane, trivial matters like what deodorant to by - and then important things like politics, morals, and religion


Are we always aware of attitudes?

No.. Some attitudes we are aware of, but some we don't even know that we hold


Some attitudes are simple, but some attitudes are complex. Example?

You like ice cream, but you know it's bad for you. Therefore, you have a complex attitude towards ice cream


What kind of attitudes do people have towards new things?

People develop negative attitudes about new things more quickly than they develop positive attitudes about them


Do we like familiar things?

Yes. The more we are exposed to something, the more we tend to like it!


Mere exposure effect

Greater exposure to an item and therefore greater familiarity with it caused people to have more positive attitudes about the item.


Ex of mere exposure effect?

When we see a normal photograph of ourselves and the same image is reversed, we would like the reversed image more because we're more familiar with it (through looking at it in the mirror)


Can our attitudes be conditioned?

Yes, they can. Attitudes can be conditioned because our associations between things and their meanings can be changed


What sort of conditioning shapes our attitudes

Classical and operant conditioning - advertisers use classical conditioning by pairing a celebrity with a product. Operant conditioning shapes attitudes as well - studying and getting a good grade makes you have a more positive attitude toward studying


Are attitudes shaped through socialization?

Yes. Caregivers, peers, teachers, religious leaders, and politicians all guide our attitudes about many things.


Do attitudes predict behavior?

The stronger and more personally relevant the attitude, the more likely it is to predict behavior.


What else to strong an personally relevant attitudes make us do?

It makes us defend the attitude


The more specific the attitude...

The more predictive it is. For ex, your attitudes toward recycling are more predictive of whether you take your sofa can to the recycling bin than are your general environmental beliefs


Attitude accessibility

Refers to the ease or difficulty that a person has in retrieving an attitude from memory


Ex of attitude accessibility

Activated attitudes are more stable, predictive of behavior, and resistant to change.


Example of attitude accessibility

The more quickly you recall that you like your psychology course, the more likely you are to attend lectures and read the textbook


Our conscious awareness of our attitudes can be limited. Why?

We desire to believe we hold positive attitudes about certain racial groups, but our actions can reveal less positive attitudes


Explicit attitudes

Attitudes that a person can report.


Example of an explicit attitude

If you say you like bowling, you are displaying your explicit attitude towards bowling


Implicit attitudes

Attitudes that influence a person's feelings and behavior at an unconscious level


Example of an implicit attitude

Purchasing a product endorsed by a celebrity even tho you have no memory of having seen the celebrity use the product


In order to study implicit attitudes, researchers observe people's behavior rather than soliciting self reports from the people



Ppl who had implicit attitudes about blacks were less likely to vote for Obama



Implicit Association Test (IAT)

Measures how quickly a person associates concepts or objects with positive or negative words


Ex of IAT: female = bad, female = good



Cognitive dissonance

An uncomfortable mental state due to a contradiction between two attitudes or between an attitude and a behavior


Example of cognitive dissonance

Conflict between attitude and behavior: you smoke even though you know it might kill you


What happens when you experience cognitive dissonance?

Anxiety and tension which lead to displeasure. This motivates people to REDUCE cognitive dissonance by changing their attitudes or behaviors


Cognitive dissonance can happen when..

A person holds positive attitudes about different options but has to choose one of the options.. For ex picking what college to attend


Postdecisional dissonance

Motivates a person to focus on one college's (the chosen college) positive aspects and the other colleges' negative aspects


What is insufficient justification?

Some ppl in a study were paid 20 dollars to lie and some were paid 1 dollar to lie. The people who were paid 1 dollar said the task was more enjoyable. This was because they wanted to justify why they went along with the lie by saying it was more enjoyable


Justifying effort. Example?

When people put themselves through pain, embarrassment, or discomfort to join a group, they experience a lot of dissonance. (Think a ritual to get into a sorority). People resolve this dissonance by inflating the importance of the group and their commitment to it. This justification of effort helps explain why people are willing to subject themselves to humiliating experiences such as hazing into a sorority.


Justifying effort in a group

People believe if they have sacrificed so much to join a group, the group must be extraordinarily important



The active and conscious effort to change an attitude through the transmission of a message


When is persuasion most likely to occur?

When people pay attention to a message, understand it, and find it convincing. And if they remember the message over time.


What factors affect the persuasiveness of a message?

1. The source (who delivers the message)
2. The content (what the message says
3. The receiver (who processes the message)


What are the most persuasive kinds of sources?

Sources that are attractive and credible


For ex a TV ad for medicine with an attractive and legit Doctor are very persuasive



What kind of content is the most persuasive?

Strong arguments that appeal to our emotions


Should you use a one-sided argument when being persuasive or should you acknowledge both sides of an argument?

Use a one-sided argument if the argument is on the speaker's side and if the audience is gullible

Acknowledge both sides of the argument if you have a more skeptical crowd. Acknowledge both sides but argue that one is superior.


Elaboration likelihood model

A theory of how persuasive messages lead to attitude changes.


Central route

When people are motivated to process information and are able to process that information, persuasion takes a central route. That means people are paying attention to the arguments, considering all the information, and using rational cognitive processes. The central route leads to strong attitudes that last over time and that people actively defend


Peripheral route

When people are either not motivated to process information or are unable to process it, persuasion takes the peripheral route. That is, people minimally process the message. This route leads to more impulsive action, as when a person decides to purchase something because a celebrity had endorsed it or becuz of how the advertisement makes you feel. Attitudes developed over the peripheral route are weaker and more likely to change over time.


Peripheral cues

Peripheral cues are like the attractiveness or status of the person making the argument. These influence what attitude is adopted.


Look at the elaboration likelihood model on page 533!!




The art of speaking or writing as a means of communication or persuasion



A dispute between people


What is an example of a complicated argument and its parts?

Young children love to learn from books, so you should develop the habit of reading to your young child every day, even if you are feeling tired from work or family life. Conclusion = read to your child every day. Reason = children love to learn from books. Qualifier = young children. Counter-argument = even if you are feeling tired from work or family life.


Humans have an overriding motivation to ____

Fit in with a group!


How do we mold our behavior to fit in with a group?

We conform to group norms, obey commands made by authorities, and are easily influenced by others in our social groups


The desire to fit in with a group and avoid being ostracized is so great that under some circumstances we willingly engage in behaviors we would otherwise condemn



Social facilitation

When the mere presence of others enhances performance


Example of social facilitation?

Bicyclists pedal faster when they ride with other people than when they ride alone


Who proposed the model of social facilitation?

Robert Zajonc


What are the steps to social facilitation

1. Presence of others
2. The presence of others leads to arousal (because other people are associated with most of life's rewards and punishments)
3. If the dominant response is easy in the situation, the presence of others will enhance performances..... If the dominant response is more difficult, the presence of others will impair performance


Ex of social facilitation?

Experienced golfers perform better in front of people than novice golfers because golfing is easier for the experienced golfers and more difficult for the novice golfers


Social loafing

The tendency for people to work less hard in a group than when working alone.


When does social loafing occur?

When the efforts are pooled so that individuals do not feel personally responsible for the group's output.


When does social loafing NOT happen?

When people know their individual efforts can be monitored. For example, if you're responsible for some component of a group project



A state of reduced individuality, reduced self-awareness, and reduced attention to personal standards; this phenomenon may occur when people are part of a group..... You become very obedient to the group you're a part of.


Some people lose their _____ when they become part of a group



Self-awareness typically causes what?

It causes people to act in accordance with their values and beliefs


Deindividuated people do things...

That they would not do if they were alone or self aware


When are people especially likely to become deindividuated?

When they are aroused and anonymous and when responsibility is diffused


Why do most militaries make people wear identical uniforms and have the same haircuts

It's deinidivuation! People who look similar are more likely to conform and respond to orders


What is a harmless example of deindividuation?

Fans doing the wave, people dancing the macerana all together


Risky shift effects

Groups often make riskier decisions than individuals do.


Example of risky shift effect

It accounts for why children in a group may try something dangerous that none of them would have tried alone


Can groups be cautious and not be like the risky-shift effect?

Yes! If the most of the group members determine that the group should be more cautious, then it will be more cautious


Group polarization

When groups make decisions, they usually choose the course of action that was initially favored by the majority of individuals in the group



Sometimes group members are concerned with maintaining the group's cohesiveness... Therefore, for the sake of having everyone in agreement and not in argument and turmoil, they end up making a bad decision


When does groupthink typically occur?

When a group is under intense pressure, is facing external threats, and is biased in a particular direction.


What happens in groupthink?

The group does not carefully process all the information available to it, dissension is discouraged, and group members assure each other they are doing the right thing


To prevent groupthink, what should leaders do?

They should not express their opinions too strongly at the beginning of discussions. The group should be encouraged to consider alternative ideas, either by having someone play devil's advocate, or by purposefully examining outside opinions. Carefully going through alternatives and weighing the pros and cons of each can help people avoid groupthink


How to work effectively in a group?

1. If possible, keep the group small
2. Be open to alternative ideas
3. Express your ideas
4. Treat dissenters respectfully
5. Consider all pros and cons



The altering of one's behaviors and opinions to match those of other people or to match other people's expectations


Normative influence

Occurs when we go along with the crowd to avoid looking foolish


Informational influence

When we assume that the behavior of the crowd represents the correct way to respond


Example of informational influence

You see a mass of people running for the exit. You decide to join them because they must be exiting for a good reason


Autokinetic effect

Through this perceptual phenomenon, a stationary point of light appears to move when viewed in a totally dark environment... When ppl are put together to observe the light, participants quickly revised their estimates until they agreed


In ambiguous situations, what do people do?

They compare their reactions with the reactions of others to judge what is the correct course of action


In a study where an answer was obvious like a measure of which line is the longest, 5 confederates were with one legit person. The legit person knew the right answer and the confederates said obviously incorrect answers. The legit person went along with the incorrect answers because they didn't want to look foolish by going against the group



Social norms

Expected standards of conduct which influence behavior


Norms indicate what?

Which behavior is appropriate in a given situation and how people will respond to those who violate norms


Why does normative influence work?

We feel embarrassed when we break social norms


What are factors that decrease the chance of conformity?

1. If you are in a group with 1-2 confederates, conformity is reduced ... HoweverC if you are with 3 or more confederates, you will usually conform

2. Lack of unanimity decreases conformity


The bottom line is groups enforce conformity and those who fail to go along are rejected



Providing social norms on a campus to prevent binge drinking for example can...

Have a backfire effect and do the opposite of what it's intended



The tendency to agree to do things requested by others


What increases compliance?

- if you're in a good mood
- if you're not paying attention
- if you want to avoid conflict


Foot-in-the-door effect

If people agree to a small request, they become more likely to comply with a large and undesirable request


Why is the foot-in-the-door effect true?

Once people commit to a course of action, they behave in ways consistent with that action. Agreeing to small request ---> agreeing to a large request


Door-in-the-face effect

People are more likely to agree to a small request after they have refused a large request.


Why does door-in-the-face happen?

The smaller second request seems more modest than the large first request, so people agree to it.


Who often uses the door in the face technique?



Low-balling strategy

A salesperson offers a product for a very low price. The customer agrees to it, and the salesperson claims that the manager did not approve the price and there will be additional charges. Whatever the reason, someone who has already agreed to buy a product will often agree to pay the increased cost!!



Willingly obeying orders


Describe Milgram experiment

You have to give shocks to a learner every time he answers a question wrong (and the patient has heart problems!). What happened? Well 2/3 of the people gave him shocks and obeyed the authority figure directing the lab. They expressed that they wanted to quit, but 2/3 of the ppl kept giving him shocks and obeyed the administrator's objectives


What was learned from the Milgram experiment?

Ordinary people can be coerced into obedience by insistent authorities


What aspects of personality are related to being obedient??

The extent to which people are concerned about how others view them


Most of the people were glad or sad they participated in the research?

Glad because they learned something about themselves and about human nature


What kind of stuff happened at Abu Grahib??

Deindividuation, social facilitation, inappropriate norms, and conformity


Group polarization and groupthink??

Group polarization = adopting the initial opinions of the group more strongly through mutual persuasion

Groupthink = agreeing to bad decisions to maintain group harmony


Although obedience leads us to commit horrible acts, the need to belong makes us more altruistic and generous




Any behavior that involves the intention to harm someone else


Child aggression vs adult aggression

Child aggression =physical aggression
Adult aggression = aggression involving words, symbols, meant to threaten, intimidate, or emotionally harm others


Stimulating what areas of the brain can lead to aggression?

Damaging the septum, amygdala, or hypothalamus


Kluver-Bucy syndrome

Damage to the amygdala which makes you less aggressive, friendly, and easy to handle. It makes you approach objects you normally fear and unusual oral behavior like putting things in your mouth (this was tested on monkeys)


What hormone is important for controlling aggressive behavior?



In humans, low levels of serotonin are associated with ___

Aggression in adults and hostility in children


Suicide victims have ___

Low levels of serotonin too!


Low levels of serotonin were found among those who had ___

Killed themselves violently, but NOT in those who killed themselves nonviolently through like dugs. Therefore, low levels of serotonin = violence


What else do low levels of serotonin cause?

Bad decision making in the face of danger or of social threat


What else about serotonin?

Less social skills and violence


So what are low levels of serotonin associated with overall?

Violence, bad social skills, bad decision making in face of threats, aggression


Frustration-aggression hypothesis

The extent to which people feel frustrated predicts the likelihood that they will act aggressively


Cognitive neoassociationistic model

Frustration leads to aggression by eliciting negative emotions ... Similarly, any situation that induces negative emotions - such as being insulted, afraid, overly hot, or in pain - can trigger physical aggression even if it does not induce frustration.... Negative events activate thoughts related to fighting or escaping and those thoughts prepare a person to act aggressively.


Does aggressive behavior differ with different cultures and societies??

Yes! Violence varies dramatically across cultures and even within cultures


Aggression may be part of human nature, but society and culture influence people's tendencies to commit acts of physical violence



Why are some cultures violent?

Because of a culture of honor


Culture of honor

In this belief system, men are primed to protect their reputations through physical aggression. This was prevalent in the traditional American south


Aggressive behavior is learned through reward and punishment.!



What drug causes aggression?

The steroid testosterone can make you very aggressive!


Aggressive men and sporty men have what?

Lots of testosterone


Testosterone changes may be the result (rather than the cause) of aggressive behavior!



In sports, testosterone increases - even ppl just watching sports



taking large doses of steroids for testosterone can do what?

Produce an extreme need for dominance and control and in turn would provoke violent behavior when a male is challenged


Chronic high doses of steroids = increased aggression




Tending to benefit others


Examples of prosocial behavior?

Doing favors, offering assistance, paying compliments, resisting the urge to insult, and being pleasant and cooperative


Benefit of prosocial behaviors?

They promote positive interpersonal relationships


Group living in which ppl engage in prosocial behaviors may be a central human survival strategy

Because it makes a strong group and belonging to a strong group helps you survive



The providing of help when it is needed, without any apparent reward for doing so


What is William hamilton's explanation for altruism?

He says natural selection occurs at a genetic level rather than an individual level


Altruism can seem anti evolutionary because ppl who help themselves over others have a better chance of surviving



Inclusive fitness

Describes the adaptive benefits of transmitting genes rather than focusing on individual survival. According to this model, people are altruistic toward those with whom they share genes


Kin selection

Being altruistic with those whom you share genes. For example, insects protect the queens eggs rather than reproduce so that they can maximize the number of their common genes that will survive into future generations


Animals sometimes help nonrelatives - like dolphins will help out orphan Dolphins



Reciprocal helping

One animal helps another because the other may return the favor in the future


Where does reciprocal helping occur most?

Animals that live in social environments like humans because their species survival depends on cooperation


When an animal acts altruistically, what are the benefits?

It increases its chances that it's genes will be transmitted and that other members of the social group will reciprocate when needed


Bystander intervention effect

The failure to offer help by those who observe someone in need


They found the more ppl there are to help when someone is in need, the less likely people will help



What else is the bystander intervention effect called?

Bystander apathy


Why does the bystander intervention effect occur?

1. A diffusion of responsibility occurs. In other words, bystanders expect other bystanders to help. Thus the more bystanders there are, the more bystander probably won't help
2. People fear making social blunders in ambiguous situations
3. People are less likely to help when they are anonymous and can remain so
4. People weigh two factors: how much harm do they risk to themselves by helping? What benefits might they have to forgo if they help?



Connections with friends and romantic partners


Not a ton of research has been done on relationships




How often people come into contact


The more that people come into contact, the more likely it is..

That they will become friends!


Why does proximity help form friendships?

People like familiarity... People who are around you a lot are familiar!



Human fear of anything that is new


Familiarity can also breed contempt rather than liking. Why??

The more we get to know a person, the more aware we become of how different that person is from us.


People similar in values, interests. Attitudes, and personalities like to be together. Why?

We like people similar to us


The most successful romantic couples tend to be what??

Physically similar.


Matching principle

The most successful romantic couples tends to be physically similar


What kind of people do we tend to like romantically?

People who have admirable personality characteristics and are physically attractive


What kind of people don't we like romantically?

Ppl who are dishonest, cheaters, insincerity, lack of warmth. Also people that appear too perfect or too competent


We like people who make small mistakes because it makes them seem more human!



What do we think as attractive?

Having a computer combine 32 different faces - people found the combination very attractive


Why do people view averaged faces as attractive?

The mere exposure effect - the more familiar you are with something, the more you like it


What else do ppl find attractive?

Symmetrical faces. This is adaptive because an asymmetrical face McKins indicate poor health or a genetic defect


Social benefits of attractiveness?

People are drawn to attractive people, are rated as happier more intelligent and more social, they have better career opportunities


Children actually prefer attractive faces



Attractive people tend to be...

More sociable, more socially skilled, more popular, but not necessarily smarter or happier


Attractive ppl are similar to unattractive ppl in intelligence, life satisfaction, and self esteem



Passionate love

A state of intense longing and sexual desire


What kind of love is portrayed in movies

Passionate love


When do people experience passionate love?

Early in relationships


What does passionate love evolve into?

Companionate love


Companionate love

A strong commitment to care for and support a partner.. This kind of love develops slowly over time because it is based on friendship, trust, respect, and intimacy.


Attachment theory

The attachment style a person has as an adult is related to how the person's parents treated him/her as a child


People whose parents were sometimes warm and sometimes not as a child... What do they turn out like?

Clingy... They worry that people do not really love them and are bound to leave them


People who fall in love and maintain that love tend to be...

Biased toward positive views of their partners


Paying attention to your partner's flaws or placing too much importance on your partner's occasional failure makes it very difficult to remain in love



Those who love their partners the most _____ their partners the most




Fades over time


For the first couple months/years you have an intense desire to have sex with your partner but then your interest in sex with them decreases after that



Half of all marriages in the Us end in...

Divorce or separation


The way a couple deals with conflict often determines whether the relationship will last



The bad strategies that make relationships fail?

1.being overly critical
2.holding partner in contempt
3.being defensive
4.mentally withdrawing from relationship


When a couple is more satisfied with their relationship... The partners...

Tend to express concern for each other even while they are disagreeing


Attributional style in relationships

How one partner explains another partner's behavior



A type of attributional style in romantic relationships where partners overlook bad behavior or respond constructively.


Happy couples attribute good outcomes to each other and bad outcomes to situations



What is the key to maintaining a positive relationship?

Viewing your partner in a positive light / even to the point of idealization


Attractive people experience many social benefits but they do not report greater happiness