Chapter 10 - Muslce Tissue Flashcards Preview

Biology - Chapters 1 - 10 > Chapter 10 - Muslce Tissue > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 10 - Muslce Tissue Deck (208)
Loading flashcards...
0

How does muscle tissue contribute to homeostasis?

By producing body movements, moving substances through the body and producing heat to maintain normal body temperature

1

What are the four key functions of muscular tissue?

1. Produce body movement
2. Stabilize body position
3. Storing and moving substances within the body
4. Generate heat

2

What is myology?

The study of muscles

3

What are the three different kinds of muscle tissue?

Skeletal
Cardiac
Smooth

4

What is skeletal muscle tissue?

Moves the bones of the skeleton
Striated muscle
Work in a voluntary manner
However, some are unconscious ... Muscles to maintain posture or stabilize body position, diaphragm for breathing

5

What is cardiac muscle tissue?

Contained only in the heart
Striated muscle
Involuntary actions

6

What is autorhythmicity?

Built-in rhythm of the heart
Several hormones and neurotransmitters can adjust heart rate by speeding or slowing the automatic pacemaker of the heart

7

What is smooth muscle tissue?

Located in the walls of hollow internal structures (blood vessels, airways), in the skin
Non striated muscle - hence ... Smooth muscle
Usually involuntary
Some smooth muscles have autorhythmicity (gastrointestinal tract)
Part of autonomic nervous system

8

What is a sphincter?

Ring-like band of smooth muscle that prevents the outflow of the contents of a hollow organ

9

What is thermogenesis?

The heat produced from muscle tissue

10

What is shivering?

Involuntary contractions of the skeletal muscles can increase the rate of heat production

11

What are the four special properties of muscle tissue?

1. Electrical excitability
2. Contractility
3. Extensibility
4. Elasticity

12

What is electrical excitability?

Ability to respond to certain stimuli by producing electrical signals called action potentials

13

For muscle cells, what two main types of stimuli trigger action potentials?

1. Electrical signals - autorhythmic, arising from the muscle tissue itself (heart's pacemaker)
2. Chemical stimuli - neurotransmitters released by neurons, hormones distributed by the blood or even local changes in pH

14

What is contractility?

The ability of muscular tissue to contract forcefully when stimulated by action potentials

15

What is extensibility?

The ability of muscular tissue to stretch, within limits, without being damaged

16

What kind of tissue allows muscle tissue to stretch?

Connective tissue - limits the range of extensibility and keeps it within the contractile range of the muscle cells

17

What kind of muscle tissue is subject to the greatest amount of stretching?

Smooth muscle tissue (example - stomach)

18

What is elasticity?

The ability of muscular tissue to return to its original length and shape after contraction of extension

19

What separates muscle from the skin?

Subcutaneous layer or hypodermis
Composed of areolar connective tissue and adipose tissue
Provides a pathway for nerves, blood vessels, lymphatic vessels

20

What is fascia?

A dense sheet of broad band of irregular connective tissue that lines the body wall and limbs and supports and surrounds muscles and other organs of the body

21

What are the functions of fascia?

Holds muscles with similar functions together
Allows free movement of muscles
Carries nerves, blood vessels, lymphatic vessels
Fills space between the muscle

22

What is the epimysium?

The outermost layer of dense, irregular connective tissue, encircles the entire muscle

23

What is the perimysium?

A layer of dense irregular connective tissue, surrounds groups of 10-100 muscle fibres, separating them into bundles called fascicles

24

What is a fascicle?

A bundle of structures, such as nerve or muscle fibres

25

What is the endomysium?

Penetrates the interior of each fascicle and separates each individual muscle fibres from each other
Mostly reticular fibres

26

What is a tendon?

Connective tissue that attaches muscle to bone

27

What happens if the three connective tissue layers of muscle extend beyond the muscle fibres?

Forms a ropelike tendon
Attaches a muscle to the periosteum of a bone

28

What is the calcaneal (achilles) tendon?

Attaches the gastrocnemius (calf) muscle to the calcaneus (heel bone)

29

What is aponeurosis?

When the connective tissue of muscle extend as a broad, flat sheet