Chapter 7 - Skeletal: Axial System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 7 - Skeletal: Axial System Deck (134)
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0

How does the axial skeleton contribute to homeostasis?

By protecting many of the body's organs (brain, spinal cord, heart, lungs)
Important in support and calcium storage and release

1

What is the musculoskeletal system?

The combination of bones, muscles, and joints

2

What is orthopedics?

Prevention and correction of disorders of the musculoskeletal system

3

How many bones does an adult have?

206
Children have more b/c some of their bone haven't fused yet

4

What are the two principle divisions of the skeletal system?

1. Axial skeleton - 80 bones
2. Appendicular skeleton - 126 bones

5

What bones make up the axial skeleton?

Skull (cranium and face)
Hyoid
Auditory ossicles
Vertebral column
Thorax (sternum and ribs)

6

What bones make up the appendicular skeleton?

Pectoral girdles
Upper limbs
Lower limbs
Pelvic girdle

7

What are the 5 main types of bones based on shape?

Long
Short
Flat
Irregular
Sesamoid

8

What are the characteristics of long bones?

Greater length than width
Consist of a shaft and a variable number of extremities or epiphyses (ends)
Slightly curved for strength
Compact bone tissue in their diaphyses
Spongy bone tissue in their epiphyses

9

Give some examples of long bones.

Femur (thigh bone)
Tibia and fibula (leg bones)
Humerus (arm bone)
Ulna and radius (forearm bones)
Phalanges (finger and toe bones)

10

What are the characteristics of short bones?

Somewhat cube-shaped
Nearly equal in length and width
Consist of spongy bone tissue except at the surface (thin layer of compact bond)

11

What are some examples of short bones?

Carpal (wrist bones)
Tarsal (ankle bones)

12

What are the characteristics of flat bones?

Generally thin and composed of two nearly parallel plates of compact bone tissue enclosing a layer of spongy bone tissue
Provide protection and extensive areas for muscle attachment

13

Give some examples of flat bones.

Cranial bones
Sternum
Ribs
Scapulae

14

What are the characteristics of irregular bones?

Complex shapes and cannot be grouped into any other previous category

15

Give some examples of irregular bones.

Vertebrae (backbones)
Hip bones
Certain facial bones
Calcaneus

16

What are the characteristics of sesamoid bones?

Develop in certain tendons where there is considerable friction, tension, physical stress
Very small! A few mm in diameter
May vary in number from person to person, may not be completely ossified

17

What are the functions of sesamoid bones?

Protect tendons from excessive wear
Often change the direction of pull of a tendon
Improves mechanical advantage at a joint

18

What are the notable exceptions of sesamoid bones? (Not small, and present in everyone)

Two patellae (kneecaps)
Large sesamoid bones located in the quadriceps femoris tendon

19

What is another type of classification of bone based on location, not shape?

Sutural bones

20

What are sutural bones?

Small bones located in sutures (joints) between certain cranial bones
Their numbers vary from person to person

21

Where is red bone marrow found? Which bones?

Ribs
Sternum
Skull
Vertebrae
Hip bones
Femur (the proximal epiphyses)
Humerus
Some short bones

22

What are surface markings?

Structural features adapted for specific functions
Develop in response to certain forces
Most prominent in the adult skeleton

23

What are two major types of surface markings?

1. Depressions and openings
2. Processes

24

Describe the characteristics of "depressions and openings" (surface markings)

Allow the passage of soft tissues (such as blood vessels, nerves, ligaments, and tendons) and
Form joints

25

What are processes (surface markings)?

Projections or outgrowths that either help form joints or serve as attachment points for connective tissue

26

What is a fissure? What kind of surface marking is it?

Narrow slit between adjacent parts of bones through which blood vessels or nerves pass
*depression or opening

27

What is a foramen? What kind of surface marking is it?

Opening through which blood vessels, nerves or ligaments pass
*depression or opening

28

What is a fossa? What kind of surface marking is it?

Shallow depression
*depression or opening

29

What is a sulcus? What kind of surface marking is it?

Furrow along bone surface that accommodates blood vessel, nerve or tendon
*depression or opening