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Flashcards in Chapter 1 - Introduction Deck (171)
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What is anatomy?

The science of body structures and the relationships among them


What is dissection?

The careful cutting apart of body structures to study their relationships


What is physiology?

The science of body functions, how they work


What is embryology?

Study of the first 8 weeks of development after fertilization of the human egg


What is developmental biology?

The complete development of an individual from fertilization to death


What is cell biology?

Study of cellular structure and function


What is histology?

Study of microscopic structure of tissues


What is gross anatomy?

Study of structures that can be studied without a microscope


What is systemic anatomy?

Study of structure of specific systems of the body such as the nervous or respiratory system


What is regional anatomy?

Study of specific regions of the body such as head or chest


What is radiographic anatomy?

Study of body structures that can be visualized with X-rays


What is pathological anatomy?

Study of structural changes (gross to microscope) associated with disease


What is surface anatomy?

Study of surface markings of the body to understand internal anatomy through visualization and palpation


What is neurophysiology?

Study of functional properties of nerve cells


What is endocrinology?

Study of hormones and how they control body functions


What is cardiovascular physiology?

Study of functions of the heart and blood vessels


What is immunology?

Study of the body's defences against disease-causing agents


What is respiratory physiology?

Study of functions of the air passageways and lungs


What is renal physiology?

Study of functions of the kidneys


What is exercise physiology?

Study of changes in cell and organ functions due to muscular activity


What is pathophysiology?

Study of functional changes associated with disease and aging


What are the 6 levels of structural organization in the human body? Describe them.

1. Chemical level - include atoms and molecules
2. Cellular level - molecules combine to form cells, basic units of the body
3. Tissue level - groups of cells that work together for a specific function
4. Organ level - structures that are composed of two or more different types of tissues, they have a specific function
5. System level - related organs with a common function (digestive system)
6. Organism level - any living individual


What are the 4 different kinds of tissue?

1. Epithelial tissue - covers body surfaces, lines hollows & cavities and forms glands
2. Connective tissue - connects, supports and protects body organs while distributing blood vessels to other tissues
3. Muscular tissue - contracts to make body parts move, generates heat
4. Nervous tissue - carries info from one part of the body to another


What are the 11 systems of the human body?

1. Integumentary system - skin, hair, fingernails
2. Skeletal system - bones and joints
3. Muscular system - muscle attached to bone
4. Nervous system - brain, spinal cord, nerves
5. Endocrine system - hormone producing glands
6. Cardiovascular system - blood, heart, and blood vessels
7. Lymphatic system - lymphatic fluid & vessels, spleen, thymus, lymph nodes, tonsils
8. Respiratory system - lungs, pharynx, larynx, trachea, and bronchial tubes
9. Digestive system - mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small & large intestine, anus, salivary glands, liver, gallbladder, pancreas
10. Urinary system - kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra
11. Reproductive system - gonads, uterus, vagina, mammary glands, seminal vesicles, prostate, penis


What is a noninvasive diagnostic technique?

Doesn't involve insertion of an instrument or device through the skin or a body opening


What is an inspection?

Examiner observes the body for any changes that deviate from normal


What is palpation?

Gentle touching (during examination)


What is auscultation?

Listening to body sounds


What is percussion?

Examiner taps the body surface and listens to the resulting echo


What are the 6 most important life processes?

1. Metabolism
2. Responsiveness
3. Movement
4. Growth
5. Differentiation
6. Reproduction