Chapter 1 - Introduction Flashcards Preview

Biology - Chapters 1 - 10 > Chapter 1 - Introduction > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 1 - Introduction Deck (171)
Loading flashcards...
0

What is anatomy?

The science of body structures and the relationships among them

1

What is dissection?

The careful cutting apart of body structures to study their relationships

2

What is physiology?

The science of body functions, how they work

3

What is embryology?

Study of the first 8 weeks of development after fertilization of the human egg

4

What is developmental biology?

The complete development of an individual from fertilization to death

5

What is cell biology?

Study of cellular structure and function

6

What is histology?

Study of microscopic structure of tissues

7

What is gross anatomy?

Study of structures that can be studied without a microscope

8

What is systemic anatomy?

Study of structure of specific systems of the body such as the nervous or respiratory system

9

What is regional anatomy?

Study of specific regions of the body such as head or chest

10

What is radiographic anatomy?

Study of body structures that can be visualized with X-rays

11

What is pathological anatomy?

Study of structural changes (gross to microscope) associated with disease

12

What is surface anatomy?

Study of surface markings of the body to understand internal anatomy through visualization and palpation

13

What is neurophysiology?

Study of functional properties of nerve cells

14

What is endocrinology?

Study of hormones and how they control body functions

15

What is cardiovascular physiology?

Study of functions of the heart and blood vessels

16

What is immunology?

Study of the body's defences against disease-causing agents

17

What is respiratory physiology?

Study of functions of the air passageways and lungs

18

What is renal physiology?

Study of functions of the kidneys

19

What is exercise physiology?

Study of changes in cell and organ functions due to muscular activity

20

What is pathophysiology?

Study of functional changes associated with disease and aging

21

What are the 6 levels of structural organization in the human body? Describe them.

1. Chemical level - include atoms and molecules
2. Cellular level - molecules combine to form cells, basic units of the body
3. Tissue level - groups of cells that work together for a specific function
4. Organ level - structures that are composed of two or more different types of tissues, they have a specific function
5. System level - related organs with a common function (digestive system)
6. Organism level - any living individual

22

What are the 4 different kinds of tissue?

1. Epithelial tissue - covers body surfaces, lines hollows & cavities and forms glands
2. Connective tissue - connects, supports and protects body organs while distributing blood vessels to other tissues
3. Muscular tissue - contracts to make body parts move, generates heat
4. Nervous tissue - carries info from one part of the body to another

23

What are the 11 systems of the human body?

1. Integumentary system - skin, hair, fingernails
2. Skeletal system - bones and joints
3. Muscular system - muscle attached to bone
4. Nervous system - brain, spinal cord, nerves
5. Endocrine system - hormone producing glands
6. Cardiovascular system - blood, heart, and blood vessels
7. Lymphatic system - lymphatic fluid & vessels, spleen, thymus, lymph nodes, tonsils
8. Respiratory system - lungs, pharynx, larynx, trachea, and bronchial tubes
9. Digestive system - mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small & large intestine, anus, salivary glands, liver, gallbladder, pancreas
10. Urinary system - kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra
11. Reproductive system - gonads, uterus, vagina, mammary glands, seminal vesicles, prostate, penis

24

What is a noninvasive diagnostic technique?

Doesn't involve insertion of an instrument or device through the skin or a body opening

25

What is an inspection?

Examiner observes the body for any changes that deviate from normal

26

What is palpation?

Gentle touching (during examination)

27

What is auscultation?

Listening to body sounds

28

What is percussion?

Examiner taps the body surface and listens to the resulting echo

29

What are the 6 most important life processes?

1. Metabolism
2. Responsiveness
3. Movement
4. Growth
5. Differentiation
6. Reproduction