Chapter 8 - Skeletal: Appendicular System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 8 - Skeletal: Appendicular System Deck (151)
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How does the appendicular skeletal system contribute to homeostasis?

By providing attachment points and leverage for muscles, (aids in body movement)
Support and protection for internal organs
Storing and releasing calcium


What are the bones of the appendicular skeletal system?

The bones that make up the upper and lower limbs
Bones of the two girdles that attach the limbs to the axial system


What does the pectoral girdle consist of?

A clavicle and a scapula


What is the clavicle? What does it articulate with?

"Collarbone" - Anterior bone
Articulates with the manubrium of the sternum and the scapula


What does the scapula articulate with?

Clavicle and the humerus


How are the pectoral girdles held in place?

By a large group of muscles that extend from the vertebral column and ribs to the scapula
* do not articulate with the vertebral column


What is the function of the pectoral girdle?

Attach the bones of the upper limbs to the axial skeletal system


What is the medial end of the clavicle called?

Sternal end
Rounded, and articulates with the manubrium of the sternum


What is the lateral end of the clavicle called?

Acromial end
Broad, flat, articulates with the acromion of the scapula


What is the conoid tubercle?

Inferior surface of the lateral end of the clavicle is the point of attachment for the conoid ligament
Attaches the scapula to the clavicle


What is the impression for the costcoclavicular ligament?

Inferior surface of the medial end of the clavicle
Point of attachment for the costcoclavicular ligament
Attaches the clavicle to the first rib


What joints are formed by the articulation of the clavicle with other bones?

Sternoclavicular - sternum and clavicle
Acromioclavicular - scapula and clavicle


What joints are formed by the articulation of the scapula with other bones?

Acromioclavicular - scapula and clavicle
Glenohumeral - scapula and humerus


What is the scapula?

The shoulder blade
Large, triangular, flat bone situated in the superior part of the posterior thorax between the levels of the 2nd and 7th rib


What is the glenoid cavity?

Shallow depression that accepts the head of the humerus
Forms the glenohumeral joint


How many bones are in each upper limb?

30 bones in three locations
1. Humerus in the arm
2. Ulna and radius in the forearm
3. 8 carpals in the wrist
5 metacarpals in the palm
14 phalanges


What does each upper limb include?



What is the humerus?

Arm bone
Longest and largest bone of the upper limb


What does the humerus articulate with?

Proximally with the scapula and distally with the ulna and radius


What does the proximal end of the humerus feature?

A rounded head that articulates with the glenoid cavity of the scapula to form the glenohumeral joint


What is the former site of the the epiphyseal growth plate on adult humerus?

Anatomical neck, distal to the head
Visible as an oblique groove


What is the capitulum?

Distal end of the humerus
Rounded knob, articulates with the head of the radius


What is the radial fossa?

Anterior depression above the capitulum
Articulates with the head of the radius when the forearm is flexed


What is the surgical neck?

A constriction of the humerus, where the head tapers to the shaft


What is the ulna?

Located on the medial aspect of the forearm
Longer than the radius
(Little finger side)


What is the olecranon?

At the proximal end of the ulna
Forms the prominence of the elbow


What is the radius?

Smaller bone of the forearm
Located on the lateral aspect of the forearm
(Thumb side)


What is the elbow joint?

Where the ulna and radius articulate with the humerus
Head of radius + capitulum of humerus
Trochlear notch of ulna + trochlea of humerus


How do the ulna and radius connect with each other?

At three places:
1. Broad, flat fibrous connective tissue called interosseous membrane, between the two shafts of the bones
2. Head of radius + ulna radial notch (proximally)
3. Head of ulna + ulnar notch of the radius (distally)


What is the carpus?

Proximal region of the hand
Consists of 8 small bones joined to one another by ligaments