Flashcards in Chapter #10 Scene Lighting, Rescue Tools, Vehicle Extrication, and Tech Rescue Deck (129):
When dealing with scene lighting equipment a firefighter I should be able to ..........and a fire fighter II should be able too.........
Operate it, Maintain it.
The most common power source used by emergency service personal.
A portable generator typically has what type of outlets.
110 volt and 220 volt
A vehicle mounted generator can produce how much power?
More then 50 kW
Name disadvantages of vehicle mounted generators.
Noisy, make communication difficult, exhaust fumes can contaminate the scene.
If small amounts of power are needed what can be used in conjunction with the vehicles electrical system?
Name advantages and disadvantages of using a inverter.
Advantages: fuel efficient, minimal noise.
Disadvantage: exhaust, limited power, limited mobility.
Name the two categories of lighting equipment.
Portable and fixed
Name the watt range for a portable light.
Name the watt range for a fixed light.
What determines the number of fixed lights that can be placed on a apparatus.
the amount of power available from the vehicle mounted generator or vehicles power system.
What three criteria must a auxiliary electrical equipment have>
waterproof, intrinsically safe, designed for the amount of current.
Standard for electrical safety in the work place.
Who should repair generators?
Qualified personal or electrician.
Name the two ways that rescue tools can be classified.
Their power source or their use.
Name the two ways rescue tools can be classified if using there power source.
Manual or power operated.
Name the five ways that rescue tools can be classified if using there use.
Cutting, Stabilizing, Lifting, Pulling, Other Activities
Standard on power rescue tools.
Name advantages of electric power tools.
Electricity is readily available, lightweight tools, battery tools are portable.
Name a disadvantage of a portable battery powered tool.
Less powerful then other tools.
Most powered rescue tools are powered by what?
Name three ways that a hydraulic pump may be operated.
hand, electric motor, gasoline engine
Name the four basic types of hydraulic and electric power rescue tools.
Spreaders, Cutters, Combination Spreaders/Cutter, Extension Ram
How many inches can a spreader typically open?
How many inches can a cutter typically open?
A rams force is strongest in which direction?
Opening force (pushing ) is twice the force as it closing (pulling) force.
What type of saw is ideal when cutting sheet metal body panels and structural components on a vehicle.
How many RPM's can a rotary saw spin up to?
If a whizzer saw is run at 90psi from a SCBA bottle w/ a regulator, how long can it run?
Air chisels are used to cut medium to heavy gauge metal, remove rivets and bolts. What PSI range are they ran at?
Name four types of stabilization tools.
Jacks, Buttress Tension Systems, Wheel Chocks, and Cribbing.
Jacks used in stabilization can also be used for what?
Used for heavy lifting, when used in conjunction with cribbing they can also be used for stabilization.
Name two types of non hydraulic jacks.
screw jack and ratchet lever jack.
Name two types of screw jacks.
bar screw and trench screw
Bar screw jacks typically are not use for what?
Lifting, just used for stabilizing.
What is the least stable of all types of jacks?
Ratchet lever jack (high lift jack)
A buttress tension system is used in what scenario?
A vehicle resting on its side or top.
What is the minimum amount of 4x4 post that should be used in a buttress tension systems?
When placed against the downhill side of the rear tires of a vehicle, wheel chocks can hold a vehicle in place at what grade?
Standard on Automotive Fire Apparatus.
Standard for Wildland Fire Apparatus.
Wooden or plastic blocks used to stabilize a vehicle during vehicle extrication or debris following a structural collapse; typically 4x4" or larger and between 16-26" long
Cribbing may have the ends painted to indicate what.
Plastic cribbing is prone to slipping when what?
Name three uses for lifting tools.
Lower a rescuer, lift a object, lift a victim
Name the three types of lifting bags.
high pressure, medium pressure, low pressure
Deflated it lay about 1 inch thick. Surface area ranges from 6 x 6 to 36 x 36. Inflate up to 20". Loses stability and raising power as it is raised.
High pressure lifting bag
Larger then high pressure bags and can inflate up to 6 feet. Most stable when fully inflated.
Low and Medium pressure lifting bags
when cribbing during a lifting bag exercise, how should it be used?
At least three pieces per layer and the top is solid.
Lifting bags should not contact materials hotter then what temp?
What two rules should be followed when stacking lifting bags?
inflate the bottom bag first, never stack more then two bags .
Name three uses for pulling tools.
Pull a vehicle apart, pull a object, stabilize a vehicle over a edge.
Name three typical pulling tools.
Winches, Chains, and Come-Alongs
Compared to other pulling tools these are stronger, faster to deploy, have a greater travel or pulling distance.
Lighter and stronger then steel, floats on water, resist UV light, not affected by temp, does not recoil or whip when it breaks.
Synthetic Fiber Cable
Area on either side of the winch cable where the cable can whip around if it breaks.
The danger zone
A winch should never be operated when there are less then how many wraps of cable around the winch?
In the event of a hook failure under a load, the broken hook will move in the direction of what?
the back of the hook
Manually operated. Typically have a load capacity range of 1 to 10 tons.
What type of chain should be used in rescue situations and why?
Alloy steel chain. Resist abrasion, corrosion, and effects of hazardous atmospheres.
Have a square drive onto which a socket is attached.
Pneumatic impact tools and wrenches.
When should power tools be inspected?
At the beginning of each work shift.
The first step pf an extrication is to
Size up the scene (begins at dispatch, continues through the incident)
What is the primary hazard at any motor vehicle accident?
Wear your retroreflective vest at all times unless you are directly involved in what?
Fire fighting or Extrication
How long can a airbag stay active even after the the battery has been disconnected?
Additional hazards such as flammable adhesives, pressurized solvents, or flammable liquids are common hazards that may be found in what part of the vehicle?
Trunk or interior.
Name seven common areas that magnesium may be found in a car.
Valve covers, Steering Columns, Mounting Brackets for ABS, Transmission Casing, Engine Blocks, Frame Supports, Exterior Body.
On a MVA at least one hose line should be deployed and charged. What minimum size of hose line?
Electric an Hybrid vehicles have wiring that may be carrying how many volts?
650 volts DC
most Electric vehicles have high voltage wiring that is orange, the 36 volt Saturn is what color?
Victims who are not trapped should be removed from a vehicle when?
First, providing more room for rescue of the trapped.
As each assessment is completed, crew members should report the information to who?
General wheel chock guidelines.
Place chocks in front of and behind tires. Place chocks on the downhill side of a vehicle on a incline. Place chocks on both sides of the tires if the ground is level or the direction of the grade is unknown. Test and apply the parking brake before placing chocks. Center chocks against the tread of the tire.
To stabilize a vehicle using lifting bags what is required?
Used in pairs at opposing sides of the vehicle. (must still use cribbing)
When using a buttress system the structs should be place at what degree.
A 50 - 70 degree angle.
What should be done before shutting of a vehicles electrical system?
Lower windows, Unlock doors, Move seats back (if it is safe to do so).
What battery cable is cut first?
Negative (2 inches)
A electric vehicles electrical system should be considered unsafe for 10 minutes after the ignition has been shut down, it may hold a charge for how long?
Name four other types of passenger safety systems other then seat belts.
Supplemental Passenger Restraint Systems (SPRS), Side Impact Protection Systems (SIPS), Head Protection Systems (HPS), Extendable Roll Over Protection Systems( ROPS).
The B-post may contain what.
Pretensions and SIPS control modules.
Air bags and side curtain air bags can deploy at what speeds?
up to 200mph
Vehicle protection systems can hold power and deploy for how long after the electrical system is off.
What is the 5-10-12-18-20 rule?
stay 5 inches away from side impact bags and knee bolsters. 10 inches from driver frontal bag, 12-18 inches away from side impact curtains, 20 inches away from frontal passenger bags.
You must cut the connection between the sensor and control unit of a SIPS restraint. Why?
They are not connected to the electrical system. They are mechanical activated from pressure sensors.
Name the two types of head protection systems (HPS).
Window Curtains and Inflatable Tubes.
Which of the HPS need to be cut by a knife to be deflated.
Extendable Roll Over Protection Systems (ROPS) are designed to be deployed under what conditions?
The vehicle is approaching 62 degrees latterly or 72 degrees longitudinally. 3G acceleration. Airborne for more then 80 milliseconds.
Two sheets of glass laminated to a sheet of plastic sandwiched between them.
Treated glass that is stronger than plate glass or a single sheet of laminated glass, crumbles when it is broken.
The most effective tool for removing safety glass.
Rear windows are what type of glass?
Can be both. Tempered or Safety
Bolt on a vehicles door frame that the door latches onto in order to close.
Removing the doors and roof from a unibody construction vehicle can seriously compromise its structural integrity. Always place what under the B post of these vehicles prior to removing the roof.
When rolling a dash where should cribbing be place on a unibody car? On a full frame car?
Under the A post, Between the frame and body.
Name two hazards that can result from cutting the steering wheel.
Accidental air bag deployment, spring action of the wheel.
Standard for Technical Rescuer Professional Qualificaions
Preventing the situation from getting worse. Involves blocking traffic, shutting off utilities, suppressing fires.
Stabilize the Situation
Who determines the location of the incidents outer perimeter?
Personnel who enter the how zone must do these three things.
Sign in to the personal accountability system. Wear PPE designed for the Hazard. Be trained to manage the situation.
What should personnel in the warm zone be dressed in?
Full PPE, ready to enter the Hot zone.
List the five critical task that first responders should do when reaching the scene.
-Size up the situation - Communicate the information - Stabilized the situation - Stabilize the victim - Establish Scene security.
Name the two categories that rope rescue can be divided into.
high angle/structural and wilderness/mountain rescue.
Name the first three priorities in order during a structural collapse rescue operation.
Get un-trapped victims to a safe area. Extricate victims who are lightly trapped. Tech rescue teams rescue victims who are trapped deeper into the collapse.
Name the five patterns of structural collapse.
Pancake, V-shape, Lean too, Cantilever, A-Frame
Collapse pattern where the exterior walls fail together, causing the roof and upper floors to collapse onto each other. Least likely to have survivors or voids.
Collapse pattern occurs when the outer walls remain intact and the roof/upper floors collapse in the middle. Voids and survivors against the exterior walls.
Collapse that occurs when one outer wall collapses and the other stays intact. Triangular void created where survivors may be.
Lean- to Collapse
Collapse that occurs when a failure occurs to the floors and roof but not to a center wall. Creates voids on each side of the center support wall.
Floors remain intact by walls that remain intact. most vulnerable to secondary collapse.
Name seven physical hazards associated with collapse.
Sharp, jagged or unstable debris. Exposed wiring and Rebar. Broken Glass. Confined Spaces. Unprotected Openings. Heights. Secondary Collapse.
Name eight environmental hazards associated with collapse.
Fire. Noise. Darkness. Temp Extremes. Adverse Weather. Damaged and leaking Utilities. Atmospheric Contamination. Haz Mat contamination.
How does OSHA define a confine space?
Large enough to enter. Limited means of entry and egress. Not designed for continued occupancy.
What does OATH stand for?
O=ok 1 tug. A=Advance 2 tugs. T= Take up 3 tugs. H= Help 4 tugs.
The first task in a size up of a water rescue is to determine what.
Is this a rescue or a recovery.
Mandatory for all personnel in the water, on a boat, within 10' of the waters edge.
Low head water dams trapped what against the upstream face of the dam?
Corden off 100' area in each direction of the trench. Eliminate vibration sources within 500' of the trench. Place exit ladders not more then 50' apart, with one by the victim. Ladders should extended 3' above the trench.
Trench rescue safety guidelines
During a machine rescue operation what should be done prior to shutting the machines power off?
Stabilize the machine using cribbing, chains, or heavy duty nylon strapping. Use a lock out / tag out device to secure the power source.
Slower, large access doors, manual or automatic controls, carry up to 3 tons, as large as 12 x 14 feet.
Elevator used in structures less then 6 stories high. A mechanical room containing the power unit is located within 100' of the elevator shaft.
T or F The majority of escalator rescues result from victims fingers and toes becoming caught between the step treads and guard plates, or sandals becoming wedged between the treads. To extricate the victim use hand pressure or a crank to move the tread backwards.
Name hazards of caves.
toxic gas, o2 deficiency, tight spaces, sharp rocks, potential for cave ins, lack of light, standing or running water.
Name hazards of mines.
Toxic gas, O2 deficiency, explosive atmosphere, cave ins, abandoned tools and equipment, lack of light, standing water.
Name hazards of tunnels.
Toxic gas, O2 deficiency, smoke, fire, tangled debris, electrified rails or wires, lack of light, standing water or other fluids, biological waste in sewers.
What four things should you always do when responding to a situation involving electricity?
Assume line is energized. Establish scene security and deny entry. Call for electric company. Stand by until electric company arrives. Allow only electric company personal to cut wires.
Electrical field that radiates outward from where the current enters the ground; its intensity dissipates rapidly as distance increases from the point of entry.