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Flashcards in Chapter 11 Deck (31):
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Advantages of the Union

Population
Because of industrialization and manufacturing they could produce more ammunition, arms, uniforms, medical support and railroad cars
Larger railroad to move troops and material
Small but organized navy, could blockade
Better political leadership due to Lincoln's guidance

1

Advantages of the Confederacy

Psychological
Strong military tradition
Robert E. Lee (union also wanted him as a general)
Better military leadership

2

Confederacy Strategies

Advantages- didn't need to conquer just avoid defeat, fighting a defensive war on familiar ground
Military- preserve small armies while doing enough damage to erode unions army, had the will to fight
Politically- hoped to win formal recognition from Britain and France (trade with these nations was crucial to south, since North's manufactured goods were cut off) European textile was dependent on cotton (confederate leaders thought that since they needed cotton they'd help but they eventually abandoned them and got cotton from Egypt)

3

Where were most battles fought

South only two in north

4

Bull run
Who wins
Hero
When
Where

Confederates win
Hero- Stonewall Jackson (confederates)
July 1861
General Irvin McDowell (union)
Manassas, Virginia

5

Union strategies

Anaconda plan- two parts
1- union would blockade southern ports (starving south of income and supplies)
2- drive along Mississippi River (control of that would split confederacy in two, weakening it
3- wanted to capture Richmond, the capital
Politically- Lincoln had to be careful because if he lost Missouri, Kentucky, Delaware and Maryland to secession the union would loose, he said he didn't intended to free the slaves

6

Emancipation Proclamation

Freed no one
Statement of freedom
13th amendment freed slaves
Military decree
(Freed people still in rebellion after January 1, 1863)
Didn't apply to loyal border states or to places that were already under union army control

7

54th Massachusetts Regiment

All black regiment (fights in the civil war)
1/2 to 2/3 get whipped out at Fort Wagner or Folly beach
Led by white officers

8

Merrimack v Monitor

First battle between iron clads in navel warfare

9

Antietam (M.D.)

Bloodiest single day of the civil war lost 23,000
September 1862
Lee warmed to inspire a pro-confederate uprising
Maryland (border state, many favored the south)
"Proclamation to the people of Maryland" - issued to invite all to ally with the south, later found invites wrapped around cigars at a rebel cite, used the element of surprise

10

Copperhead

Opposed Lincoln and the war, wanted to make peace with the south

11

Conscription (draft)

Rich benefited, they could pay $300 for a replacement and for every 20 slaves you owned you got an exemption
"Poor mans fight"

12

Clara Barton

Nursed wounded soldiers on the battlefield
1870 in Europe on vacation she nursed soldiers between Frances and Germany
Found the American branch of international Red Cross and was president for 20 plus years, added to disaster relief (women's role)

13

Where is Vicksburg

Mississippi
On the river

14

Siege

Military tactic the army surrounds, bombards and cuts off all supplies to an enemy position in order to force its surrender

15

Who wins Vicksburg

Union captures it and splits the confederacy in two

16

Civil war years

1861-1865

17

Gettysburg, PA

3 day battle
50,000 killed or wounded
North wins and is considered the turning point of the war
Lee was trying to take pressure off south and farmers by taking war to the north, the confederates fought from north and union fought from south
Pickets charge is biggest mistake on lee's part

18

Pickets charge

Huge mistake by Lee
Send men into a one mile land trying to break into enemy lines
7,000 people die in 20 minutes

19

Gettysburg Address

Today seen as an enduring statement of American values/goals
Described Civil War as a struggle to fulfill the Declaration of Independence and to preserve a nation "dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal"

20

Total war

Striking civilian as well as military targets, purpose- to weaken not just the enemy's army but also the economy that supports them and the overall will of the people to fight

21

What place doesn't Sherman burn

Madison, Georgia

22

What did Charleston do because they thought Sherman was coming

Burned themselves
Already shut down from blockades

23

The south is done after

Sherman burns most of it to the ground because of total war
Brutal
Gets the war over with

24

Goals of total war

Strike military and civilian targets
Destroy materials and crops that enemy forces might be able to use
Break people's will to continue fighting
Destroy railroads and factories to damage the local economy

25

13th amendment

Outlaws slavery
1865

26

14th amendment

Defines citizenship

27

15th amendment

Black men have the right to vote
1870

28

Lincoln assassination

1865
Fords theatre
John Wilkes Booth

29

Mathew Brady

Photographer throughout the war

30

Land grant college

Gave money from the sale of public lands for the establishment of universities that taught "agriculture and mechanical arts"