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Flashcards in Chapter 11 Deck (26):
1

Motivation

Something that prompts a person to release his or her energy in a certain direction

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Need

The gap between what is and what is required

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Want

The gap between what is and what is desired

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Intrinsic rewards

The rewards that are part of the job itself

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Extrinsic rewards

The rewards that are external to the job

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Scientific management

A system of management developed by Frederick W. Taylor and based on four principles: developing a scientific approach for each element of a job, scientifically selecting and training workers, encouraging cooperation between workers and managers, and dividing work and responsibility between management and workers according to who can better perform a particular task

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Hawthorne effect

The phenomenon that employees perform better when they feel singled out for attention or feel that management is concerned about their welfare

8

Maslow's hierarchy of needs

A theory of motivation developed by Abraham Maslow; it holds that humans have five levels of needs and act to satisfy their unmet needs. At the base of the hierarchy are fundamental physiological needs, followed in order by safety, social, esteem, and self-actualization needs

9

ERG theory

A theory of motivation developed by Clayton Alderfer that better supports empirical research than Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory. The three components of the model are existence, relatedness, and growth

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Existence

The concern for basic material existent motivators

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Relatedness

The concern for interpersonal relations

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Growth

The concern for personal growth

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Theory X

A management style formulated by Douglas McGregor that is based on a pessimistic view of human nature and assumes that the average person dislikes work, will avoid it if possible, prefers to be directed, avoids responsibility, and wants security above all

14

Theory Y

A management style formulated by Douglas McGregor that is based on a relatively optimistic view of human nature; assumes that the average person wants to work, accepts responsibility, is willing to help solve problems, and can be self-directed and self-controlled

15

Theory Z

A theory developed by William Ouchi that combines North American and Japanese business practices by emphasizing long-term employment, slow career development, moderate specialization, group decision making, individual responsibility, relatively informal control over the employee, and concern for workers

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Motivating factors

Intrinsic job elements that lead to worker satisfaction

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Hygiene factors

Extrinsic elements of the work environment that do not serve as a source of employee satisfaction or motivation

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Expectancy theory

A theory of motivation that holds that the probability of an individual's acting in a particular way depends on how strongly that person believes the act will have a particular outcome, and on whether they value that outcome

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Equity theory

A theory of motivation that holds that worker satisfaction is influenced by employees' perceptions about how fairly they are treated compared to their coworkers

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Goal-setting theory

A theory of motivation based on the premise that an individual's intention to work toward a goal is a primary source of motivation

21

MBO

Management by objectives:
A systematic approach where individuals are given clear, specific objectives and goals to achieve that are consistent with those of the organization

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Job enlargement

The horizontal expansion of a job based on an increase in the number and variety of tasks that a person performs

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Jon enrichment

The vertical expansion of a job based on an increase in the employee's autonomy, responsibility, and decision-making authority

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Job rotation

The shifting of workers from one job to another; also called cross-training

25

Job sharing

A scheduling option that allows two individuals to split the tasks, responsibilities, and work hours of one 40-hour-per-week job

26

Telecommuting

An arrangement in which employees work at home and are linked to the office by phone, fax, and computer