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Flashcards in Chapter 9 Deck (41):
1

Management

The process of guiding the development, maintenance, and allocation of resources to attain organizational goals

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Efficiency

Using the least amount of resources to accomplish the organization's goals (doing things right)

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Effectiveness

The ability to produce the desired results or goods (doing the right thing)

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Leadership

The relationship between a leader and the followers who want real changes, resulting in outcomes that reflect their shared purposes (leading people)

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Planning

The process of deciding what needs to be done to achieve organizational objectives, identifying when and how it will be done, and determining by whom it should be done

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Strategic planning

The process of creating long-range (one to five years) broad goals for the organization and determining what resources will be needed to accomplish those goals

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Mission

An organization's purpose and reason for existing; its long-term goals

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Mission statement

A clear, concise articulation of how the company intends to achieve its vision - how it is different from its competition and the keys to its success

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Tactical planning

The process of beginning to implement a strategic plan by addressing issues of coordination and allocation of resources to different parts of the organization; has a shorter time frame (less than one year) and more specific objectives than strategic planning

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Operational planning

The process of creating specific standards, methods, policies, and procedures that are used in specific functional areas of the organization; helps guide and control the implementation of tactical plans

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Contingency plans

Plans that identify alternative courses of action for very unusual or crisis situations; typically stipulate the chain of command, standard operating procedures, and communication channels the organization will use during an emergency

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Organizing

The process of coordination and allocating a company's resources to carry out its plans

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Top management

The highest level of managers, including CEOs, presidents, and vice-presidents; they develop strategic plans and address long-range issues

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Middle management

Managers who design and carry out tactical plans in specific areas of the company

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Supervisory management (operational management)

Managers who design and carry out operational plans for the ongoing daily activities of the company

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Leading

The process of guiding and motivating others toward the achievement of organizational goals

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Power

The ability to influence others to behave in a particular way

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Legitimate power

Power that is derived from an individual's position in an organization

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Reward power

Power that is derived from an individual's control over rewards

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Coercive power

Power that is derived from an individual's ability to threaten negative outcomes

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Expert power

Power that is derived from an individual's extensive knowledge in one or more areas

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Referent power

Power that is derived from an individual's personal charisma and the respect and/or admiration the individual inspires

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Leadership styles

The relatively consistent way in which individuals in leadership positions attempt to influence the behaviour of others

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Autocratic leaders

Directive leaders who prefer to make decisions and solve problems on their own with little input from their subordinates

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Participative leaders

Leaders that share decision making with group members and encourage discussion of issues and alternatives; includes democratic, consensual, and consultative styles

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Democratic leaders

Leaders who solicit input from all members of the group and then allow the members to make the final decision through a vote

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Consensual leaders

Leaders who encourage discussion about issues and then require that all parties involved agree to the final decision

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Consultative leaders

Leaders who confer with subordinates before making a decision, but retain the final decision-making authority

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Free-rein (laissez-faire) leadership

A leadership style in which the leader turns over all authority and control to subordinates

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Empowerment

The process of giving employees increased autonomy and discretion to make decisions, as well as control over the resources needed to implement those decisions

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Corporate culture

The set of attitudes, values, and standards of behaviour that distinguishes one organization from another

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Controlling

The process of assessing the organization's process toward accomplishing its goals; includes monitoring the implementation of a plan and correcting deviations from it

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Informational roles

A manager's activities as an information gatherer, information disseminator, or spokesperson for the company

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Interpersonal roles

A manager's activities as a figurehead, company leader, or liasion

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Decisional roles

A manager's activities as an entrepreneur, resource allocator, conflict resolver, or negotiator

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Programmed decisions

Decisions make in response to frequently occurring routine situations

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Non-programmed decisions

Responses to infrequent, unforeseen, or very unusual problems and opportunities where the manager does not have a precedent to follow in decision making

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Technical skills

A manager's specialized areas of knowledge and expertise, as well as the ability to apply that knowledge

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Human relations skills

A manager's interpersonal skills that are used to accomplish goals through the use of human resources

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Conceptual skills

A manager's ability to view the organization as a whole, understand how the various parts are interdependent, and assess how the organization relates to its external environment

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Global management skills

A manager's ability to operate in diverse cultural environments