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Flashcards in chapter 11 Deck (53):
1

motivation

concerns the physiological and psychological processes underlying the initiation of behaviors that direct organism toward specific goals.

2

drives

stimulations that our brain generates to push us to address basic biological needs

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homeostasis

our body's physiological processes that allow it to maintain consistent internal states in response to the out environment

4

allostasis

motivation is not only influenced by current needs, but also by the anticipation of future needs

5

what signals us to stop eating?

ventromedial region of the hypothalamus

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satiation

the experience of being full and uninterested in eating any more.

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glucose

sugar that serves as a primary energy source for the brain and the rest of the body.

8

cholecystokinin

when we eat expansion of our intestines stimulates neurons to release

9

unit bias

the tendency to assume that the unit of sale or portioning is an appropriate amount to consume

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social facilitation

eating more.
dinner hosts encourage guests to take second and third helpings

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minimal eating norm

eating small amounts to avoid seeming rude.

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modeling

eating whatever their eating,

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obesity

an eating disorder in which people consume more food than they require to sustain their biological processes

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anorexia nervosa

eating disorder than involves self-starvation and intense fear of weight gain and dissatisfaction of owns body

15

bulimia nervosa

-eating disorder that is characterized by periods of food deprivation, binge-eating, and purging.
-more likely to enter treatment programs.

16

reproduction suppression hypothesis

eating disorders that result in low body fat may be a way for women to reduce the change of becoming pregnant when they are under stress or when they do not feel ready or well-supported

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sex drives

the human for sexual contact represents a basic biological need. the drive that motivates us to seek out sexual contact is called ubido

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Alfred Kinsey

interviewed his students about their sexual histories

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what are reasons people have sex

1. for physical reasons
2. to help attain a goal
3. for emotional reasons
4. because of insecurity

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William masters and Virginia Johnson

-first research study on sexual human response in the 1950s
- sexual response cycle:
1. excitement
2. plateau
3. orgasm
4. resolution

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orgasm and resolution

-the hypothalamus generates the orgasm the point of intense pleasure and release during the sexual response cycle in both men and women

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oxytocin

after an orgasm oxytocin is released from pituitary glands.

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sexual orientation

ones preference for engaging in sexual activity with opposite-sex partners (hetero) same sex partners (homo) or either (bi)

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gender roles

accepted attitudes and behaviors of males and females in a given society

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testosterone

responsible for sex drive in men and women

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Abraham Maslow

some motivations must take some provocations over others.
developed a hierarchy of needs

27

underappreciated threats to mental health and causes of social problems

-sleep deprivation
-social isolation and rejection

28

fulfilling our need to belong generates health benefits

-improves physical health
- loneliness lowers our immune system and increases our risk of disease

29

passionate love

physical and emotional longing for the other person

30

companionate love

related to tenderness and to the affection we feel when our lives are intertwined with another person

31

factors associated with romantic partners staying together for the long-term include

- having a high level of attraction to begin with
- strength between whatever obstacles exist that would prevent a breakup
- the availability of alternative options

32

esteem needs

also known as "achievement motivations"

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achievement motivation

the drive to perform at high levels and to accomplish significant goals

34

what part of the brain stimulates you to eat

the lateral part of the hypothalamus

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insulin

hormone secreted by the pancreas which helps store this circulating glucose for future use.
insulin rises, hunger decreases

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orbitofrontal cortex

part of the frontal lobe above your eyes which judges the reward value of food.

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insula

receives information about taste

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basal ganglia

responds to physical rewards

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when someone eats something pleasurable and enjoyable what parts of the brain are active?

1. orbitofrontal cortex
2. insula
3. basal ganglia

40

why do we naturally crave fats

specialized receptors on the tongue that are sensitive to the fat content of food. these receptors send messages to the brain that stimulate the release of endorphins and dopamine both which are part of the pleasure and rewards.

41

ghrelin

hormone secreted in the stomach that stimulates stomach contractions and appetite.

42

what are some factors of obesity

1. huge variety of food
2. craving fatty foods
3. economics, tends to effect the poor than the rich.

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what are some factors of eating disorders

1. stress
2. depression
3. guilt
4. anxiety
5. perfectionism
6. peer pressure
7. family issues

44

libido

the motivation for sexual activity and pleasure

45

Cindy Meston and David Buss

asked more than 1500 U.S college students to identify their reasons to have sex.

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refractory period

a time period during which erection and orgasm are not physically possible

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simon Levay

he found that an area of the hypothalamus was on average smaller in gay men compared to heterosexual men.

48

sexual scripts

the set of rules and assumptions about the sexual behaviors of males and females

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sex guilt

negative emotional feelings for having violated culturally accepted standards of appropriate sexual behavior

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the need to belong

is the motivation to maintain relationships that involve pleasant feelings such as warmth affection appreciation and mutual concern for each persons well-being

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what is a risk factor for illness such as heart disease and cancer

loneliness

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what are some barriers that stop someone from leaving a relationship

children, religious, social and economic pressures

53

approach goal

an enjoyable and pleasant incentive