Flashcards in chapter 11 Deck (53):
concerns the physiological and psychological processes underlying the initiation of behaviors that direct organism toward specific goals.
stimulations that our brain generates to push us to address basic biological needs
our body's physiological processes that allow it to maintain consistent internal states in response to the out environment
motivation is not only influenced by current needs, but also by the anticipation of future needs
what signals us to stop eating?
ventromedial region of the hypothalamus
the experience of being full and uninterested in eating any more.
sugar that serves as a primary energy source for the brain and the rest of the body.
when we eat expansion of our intestines stimulates neurons to release
the tendency to assume that the unit of sale or portioning is an appropriate amount to consume
dinner hosts encourage guests to take second and third helpings
minimal eating norm
eating small amounts to avoid seeming rude.
eating whatever their eating,
an eating disorder in which people consume more food than they require to sustain their biological processes
eating disorder than involves self-starvation and intense fear of weight gain and dissatisfaction of owns body
-eating disorder that is characterized by periods of food deprivation, binge-eating, and purging.
-more likely to enter treatment programs.
reproduction suppression hypothesis
eating disorders that result in low body fat may be a way for women to reduce the change of becoming pregnant when they are under stress or when they do not feel ready or well-supported
the human for sexual contact represents a basic biological need. the drive that motivates us to seek out sexual contact is called ubido
interviewed his students about their sexual histories
what are reasons people have sex
1. for physical reasons
2. to help attain a goal
3. for emotional reasons
4. because of insecurity
William masters and Virginia Johnson
-first research study on sexual human response in the 1950s
- sexual response cycle:
orgasm and resolution
-the hypothalamus generates the orgasm the point of intense pleasure and release during the sexual response cycle in both men and women
after an orgasm oxytocin is released from pituitary glands.
ones preference for engaging in sexual activity with opposite-sex partners (hetero) same sex partners (homo) or either (bi)
accepted attitudes and behaviors of males and females in a given society
responsible for sex drive in men and women
some motivations must take some provocations over others.
developed a hierarchy of needs
underappreciated threats to mental health and causes of social problems
-social isolation and rejection
fulfilling our need to belong generates health benefits
-improves physical health
- loneliness lowers our immune system and increases our risk of disease
physical and emotional longing for the other person
related to tenderness and to the affection we feel when our lives are intertwined with another person
factors associated with romantic partners staying together for the long-term include
- having a high level of attraction to begin with
- strength between whatever obstacles exist that would prevent a breakup
- the availability of alternative options
also known as "achievement motivations"
the drive to perform at high levels and to accomplish significant goals
what part of the brain stimulates you to eat
the lateral part of the hypothalamus
hormone secreted by the pancreas which helps store this circulating glucose for future use.
insulin rises, hunger decreases
part of the frontal lobe above your eyes which judges the reward value of food.
receives information about taste
responds to physical rewards
when someone eats something pleasurable and enjoyable what parts of the brain are active?
1. orbitofrontal cortex
3. basal ganglia
why do we naturally crave fats
specialized receptors on the tongue that are sensitive to the fat content of food. these receptors send messages to the brain that stimulate the release of endorphins and dopamine both which are part of the pleasure and rewards.
hormone secreted in the stomach that stimulates stomach contractions and appetite.
what are some factors of obesity
1. huge variety of food
2. craving fatty foods
3. economics, tends to effect the poor than the rich.
what are some factors of eating disorders
6. peer pressure
7. family issues
the motivation for sexual activity and pleasure
Cindy Meston and David Buss
asked more than 1500 U.S college students to identify their reasons to have sex.
a time period during which erection and orgasm are not physically possible
he found that an area of the hypothalamus was on average smaller in gay men compared to heterosexual men.
the set of rules and assumptions about the sexual behaviors of males and females
negative emotional feelings for having violated culturally accepted standards of appropriate sexual behavior
the need to belong
is the motivation to maintain relationships that involve pleasant feelings such as warmth affection appreciation and mutual concern for each persons well-being
what is a risk factor for illness such as heart disease and cancer
what are some barriers that stop someone from leaving a relationship
children, religious, social and economic pressures