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Flashcards in chapter 4 Deck (61):
1

sensation

is the process that our sensory organs perform when they receive information about the world.

2

perception

recognizing and interpreting sensory stimuli. something what we see at a glance can contradict the sensory information that we receive

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transduction

the process of converting basic sensory information into neural activity that the brain can interrupt

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psychophysics

gustav Fechner.
seeks to measure the relationship between the energy detected by our sensory psychological experiences of that energy

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absolute threshold

the minimum amount of energy of a stimulus that we can do 50% of the time. can vary between

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difference threshold

just a noticeable difference, the smallest difference between stimuli

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signal detection theory

considers both the amount of stimulation that people receive with their personal threshold.

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structuralism

focused on the elementary units of perception. focusing on the lines that form the connect the dogs image

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gestalt psychology

insisted that perception is far more than simply the component part that goes into it.

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law of proximity

grouping objects together according to their closeness in space

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law of similarity

grouping objects together according to features they have in common such as shape and size

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law of closure

features with pieces missing belong to the same object if the features of the object are consistent for that type of inference

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law of continuity

grouping features together when some part of them is obscured by another object . we assume they continue when behind other objects

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divided attention

works okay as long as these different sources of information are fairly simple. ex: we can chew gum and walk and plan our evening at the same time

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selective attention

performance will be best if focusing on just one task. the downside is that you wont be very aware of other surroundings of information

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the earliest stage of visual processing naturally depends on...

your EYES !!

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what is the eyes job

to take in light and information to convert into neural signals that the brain be interpret,

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amplitude

the lowest and highest point on the wave

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wavelength

light travels through space in the form of waves, and varies across a series of wavelengths

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saturation

light that consists of a mixture of different wavelengths have LOW SATURATION. light waves that consist of mostly one wavelength have HIGH SATURATION

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Sclera

white surface of the eye

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cornea

the clear part in front.

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pupil

dark opening part. size of the pupil depends on how much light is available. bright areas=smaller

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iris

part around the pupil which has colour. muscle constricting the pupil

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the lens

clear part that changes shape and is behind the pupil. bends light either more or less according the distance of objects that we re trying to bring into focus.

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the retina

after passing through the lens the light will travel through liquid contents of the eye and will hit the structure called the retina. has layers of light receptors that absorb light. called PHOTORECEPTORS.
transduction occurs here

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photoreceptors

convert information from the light they absorb into a neural signal.
rods and cones

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ganglion cells

take signals from photoreceptors and relay that information to the brain.

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optic nerve

where the axons of ganglion cells get bundled together

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optic disc

back of the eye where the axons come together to form the optic nerve

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rods

common in the outer region of the retina. most sensitive to light. rely on rods in the dine lighting conditions

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cones

central region of the retina. less sensitive to light, so we don't rely on them as much in the dark. rely for colour vision.

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tri-chromatic theory

colour vision relies on three types of cones that are each sensitive to different wavelengths of light that correspond to the colours blue green and red

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nearsightedness

myopia
bring far scenes to focus. slight changes in the shape of the eye can distort the process.
occurs when the eye is too long

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farsightedness

hyperopia
prevents bringing close objects into focus. when the eye is just a bit short

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where is the left visual field processed

right hemisphere

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where is the right visual field processed

left hemisphere

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process from the eyes to the brain

on the way to the occipital cortex, visual inputs get routed through the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN)

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shape constancy

different viewing angles do not lead us to conclude objects are changing shape

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colour constancy

light and shadow change the wavelengths that bounce on of objects to strike our retinas

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size constancy

the size of image of an object projects varies with distance, but we are able to correct for this variability

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dorsal stream of visual processing

parietal bone
deals with processing visual information for the purpose of guiding motor actions

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depth perception

allows us to perceive the world in 3 dimensions.

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2 classes of information of depth perception

1. binocular cues: convergence- focuses on closer objects we can feel our eye muscles point our eyes toward the center of space retinal disparity: your left eye and your right eye view slightly different things
2. monocular depth cues: accommodation: the lenses changing shape in response to bring far images closer. motion parallax: on the move, objects closer will seem to move faster.

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auditory systems

our ears are to collect sound waves and our brain uses that information to identify the source and interpret the content and location of noise.
ears are sensory organs

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sound waves

basic inputs of auditory experiences. effect on air molecules caused by some physical disturbance

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frequency

initially, a sound is based on the speed by which air molecules displaced by the original physical event that initiates the sound.
short wavelength= high pitched
long wavelength=low pitched

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amplitude

height of the sound waves. high amplitude sounds are heard louder than low amplitude sounds.

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the 3 parts of the ear

1. outer ear: the pinna which is the part we can see and the
auditory canal which is the tube extending from the pinna to the ear drum
2. middle ear: contains the eardrum which is at the end of the auditory canal. Ossicles are 3 little bones connected to the ear drum. these bones vibrate with the sound wave. cochlea receives information about the sound wave from the stapes bone

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basilar membrane

flexes the response in the tapping patter delivered by the stapes , which causes movement of the fluid inside the cochlea.

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place theory of hearing

the idea that the brain uses which hair cells are sending the strongest signals to determine whether a sound is higher or lower in pitch

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volley principle

many neurons working as a team could alternate their firing to achieve a rate of firing well above 1000 times per second

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haptics

active exploration of objects to learn their properties

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kinesthesis

sensors in our muscles, joints, and tendons that give us a sense of the position of our body parts in space

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fast fibers

for sharp intense pain caused by physical injury

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slow fibers

for the persistent throbbing pain that persists after an injury occurs.

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gate control theory

some spinal cord cells send pain signals to the brain and the others that inhibit transmission of pain signals to the brain

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phantom limb pain

people that have lost a limb state that they feel terrible pain in the limb that no longer exists

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the gustatory system

basic components of taste are salty. sour bitter, sour and umami

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taste buds

found in little bumps on the surface of the tongue called papillae, dendrites of neurons are connected to the papillae.

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the olfactory system

sense of smell.