Flashcards in chapter 4 Deck (61):
is the process that our sensory organs perform when they receive information about the world.
recognizing and interpreting sensory stimuli. something what we see at a glance can contradict the sensory information that we receive
the process of converting basic sensory information into neural activity that the brain can interrupt
seeks to measure the relationship between the energy detected by our sensory psychological experiences of that energy
the minimum amount of energy of a stimulus that we can do 50% of the time. can vary between
just a noticeable difference, the smallest difference between stimuli
signal detection theory
considers both the amount of stimulation that people receive with their personal threshold.
focused on the elementary units of perception. focusing on the lines that form the connect the dogs image
insisted that perception is far more than simply the component part that goes into it.
law of proximity
grouping objects together according to their closeness in space
law of similarity
grouping objects together according to features they have in common such as shape and size
law of closure
features with pieces missing belong to the same object if the features of the object are consistent for that type of inference
law of continuity
grouping features together when some part of them is obscured by another object . we assume they continue when behind other objects
works okay as long as these different sources of information are fairly simple. ex: we can chew gum and walk and plan our evening at the same time
performance will be best if focusing on just one task. the downside is that you wont be very aware of other surroundings of information
the earliest stage of visual processing naturally depends on...
your EYES !!
what is the eyes job
to take in light and information to convert into neural signals that the brain be interpret,
the lowest and highest point on the wave
light travels through space in the form of waves, and varies across a series of wavelengths
light that consists of a mixture of different wavelengths have LOW SATURATION. light waves that consist of mostly one wavelength have HIGH SATURATION
white surface of the eye
the clear part in front.
dark opening part. size of the pupil depends on how much light is available. bright areas=smaller
part around the pupil which has colour. muscle constricting the pupil
clear part that changes shape and is behind the pupil. bends light either more or less according the distance of objects that we re trying to bring into focus.
after passing through the lens the light will travel through liquid contents of the eye and will hit the structure called the retina. has layers of light receptors that absorb light. called PHOTORECEPTORS.
transduction occurs here
convert information from the light they absorb into a neural signal.
rods and cones
take signals from photoreceptors and relay that information to the brain.
where the axons of ganglion cells get bundled together
back of the eye where the axons come together to form the optic nerve
common in the outer region of the retina. most sensitive to light. rely on rods in the dine lighting conditions
central region of the retina. less sensitive to light, so we don't rely on them as much in the dark. rely for colour vision.
colour vision relies on three types of cones that are each sensitive to different wavelengths of light that correspond to the colours blue green and red
bring far scenes to focus. slight changes in the shape of the eye can distort the process.
occurs when the eye is too long
prevents bringing close objects into focus. when the eye is just a bit short
where is the left visual field processed
where is the right visual field processed
process from the eyes to the brain
on the way to the occipital cortex, visual inputs get routed through the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN)
different viewing angles do not lead us to conclude objects are changing shape
light and shadow change the wavelengths that bounce on of objects to strike our retinas
the size of image of an object projects varies with distance, but we are able to correct for this variability
dorsal stream of visual processing
deals with processing visual information for the purpose of guiding motor actions
allows us to perceive the world in 3 dimensions.
2 classes of information of depth perception
1. binocular cues: convergence- focuses on closer objects we can feel our eye muscles point our eyes toward the center of space retinal disparity: your left eye and your right eye view slightly different things
2. monocular depth cues: accommodation: the lenses changing shape in response to bring far images closer. motion parallax: on the move, objects closer will seem to move faster.
our ears are to collect sound waves and our brain uses that information to identify the source and interpret the content and location of noise.
ears are sensory organs
basic inputs of auditory experiences. effect on air molecules caused by some physical disturbance
initially, a sound is based on the speed by which air molecules displaced by the original physical event that initiates the sound.
short wavelength= high pitched
long wavelength=low pitched
height of the sound waves. high amplitude sounds are heard louder than low amplitude sounds.
the 3 parts of the ear
1. outer ear: the pinna which is the part we can see and the
auditory canal which is the tube extending from the pinna to the ear drum
2. middle ear: contains the eardrum which is at the end of the auditory canal. Ossicles are 3 little bones connected to the ear drum. these bones vibrate with the sound wave. cochlea receives information about the sound wave from the stapes bone
flexes the response in the tapping patter delivered by the stapes , which causes movement of the fluid inside the cochlea.
place theory of hearing
the idea that the brain uses which hair cells are sending the strongest signals to determine whether a sound is higher or lower in pitch
many neurons working as a team could alternate their firing to achieve a rate of firing well above 1000 times per second
active exploration of objects to learn their properties
sensors in our muscles, joints, and tendons that give us a sense of the position of our body parts in space
for sharp intense pain caused by physical injury
for the persistent throbbing pain that persists after an injury occurs.
gate control theory
some spinal cord cells send pain signals to the brain and the others that inhibit transmission of pain signals to the brain
phantom limb pain
people that have lost a limb state that they feel terrible pain in the limb that no longer exists
the gustatory system
basic components of taste are salty. sour bitter, sour and umami
found in little bumps on the surface of the tongue called papillae, dendrites of neurons are connected to the papillae.