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Flashcards in chapter 5 Deck (61):


refers to what we are aware of at any point of time and incudes perception, thoughts and feelings.


infradian rhythms

biological rhythms that cycle over a period longer than a day (like female menstrual cycles)


ultradian rhythms

biological rhythms that cycle over a period shorter than a day (hormone levels)


circadian rhythms

biological rhythms that cycle over a 24 hour period (sleeping/waking cycle)


suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus

the structure is responsible for coordinating our circadian rhythms with exposure to sunlight in the hypothalamus.


pineal gland

releases hormones called melatonin that contributes to our level or alertness. the more melatonin the less alertness and more sleepiness. highest at night



the synchronization of biological rhythms with external cues, such as light or temperature


endogenous rhythms

external cues do not modify some of our biological rhythms.


what happens while we sleep?

demonstrates a circadian rhythm, while we are sleeping we go through shorter ultradian rhythms.



these measures include body temperature, breathing rate and sensors for measuring muscle activity and electroencephalogram (EEG)


beta waves

high frequency low amplitude waves that dominate when we are awake and alert


alpha wave

as a person transitions into sleep the frequency slows down a bit and the amplitude of the wave increases a bit


4 stages of sleep

1. theta waves: brain waves are slower and amplitude increases, slower breathing
2. sleep spindles and k complexes: after 15 mins is when spindles appear which is a burst of high frequency. k complexes are bursts of high amplitude waves
3. delta waves: around 20 minutes. low frequency high amplitude waves. continues into stage 4 which is the deepest level of sleep.


REM sleep

over an hour of sleeping and then in reverse to stage 1,
brain waves are faster in this stage, along with heart rate and breathing rates.
stages 1-4 are also referred to as non-rem sleep


sleep deprivation

can lead to determination in mental and physical health
weakens immune system


preserve and protect hypothesis

the idea that sleep serves function of conserving our energy and keeping us out trouble in the nighttime.
our eyes are not well functioned in the dark
animals that sleep the most tend to be at the least risk for getting eaten such as bats and lions


sleep displacement

when we are unable to sleeping during our normal sleeping time. this tends to occur when we travel across time zones.
jet lag: uncomfortable period of adjustment while our biological rhythms synchronize with a new time zone after traveling.



inability to sleep. diagnose based on how rested people feel during their waking hours.


types of insomnia

onset insomnia: problems getting to sleep
maintenance insomnia: trouble getting a full nights sleep from waking up too early
terminal insomnia: trouble getting a full nights sleep from waking up too early
secondary insomnia: difficulty sleeping caused by some primary influence like chronic pain, drug use, anxiety or depression


night terrors

-less common. intense emotional reaction during sleep that cause screaming thrashing around and waking up in a state of panic
-not dreams


restless leg syndrome

a persistent urge to continually shift the positions of ones leg.



sleep walking. walking around or engaging in other activities while one is asleep. more common in children



sleep sex
engaging in sexual activity during sleep, including touching oneself or others and talking dirty


REM behavior disorder

physically actingout the action that one is performing as part of the dream


sleep apnea

a disorder in which a person has difficulty sleeping because or reoccurring episodes of not being able to breathe
more common in men



a disorder in which individuals are very sleepy or even prone to rapidly and unpredictably falling asleep during waking hours


how to maintain good sleep hygiene

1. bed should be for sleeping and sex not working
2. don't try to hard to sleep
3. exercise early in the day
4. avoid sleeping pills
5. if you cannot fall asleep get up and do something and then try again when you feel tired



while we sleep we go through experiences that feel very real. differentiate extremely between one individual to the next.
female students dreams tend to be associated with failing, loosing control and dangerous animals
male students dreams tended to more on positive things


why do we dream?

signmund freud idea was that dreaming was peoples wish-fulfilment, meaning us dreaming will give us some sight on what we want.
we often dream about our everyday experiences/problems


manifest content

the actual images and experiences we have while dreaming.


latent content

the true meaning of our dreams lying at the root of the symbols that form the manifest content of our dreams.


dream work

a psychoanalysis technique in which the client records dreams and the analyst tried to interpret their true meanings


the activation synthesis hypothesis

in REM, the pons in our brain stem send random bursts of neural activity up to the rest of the brain, causing rapid eye movement and stimulates the visual auditory and other centers of the brain that we rely on to feel real life sensations
frontal lobes
most accepted theory


problem solving theory of dreaming

perhaps dreams provide a way to work through life problems
you may have experienced a dream in failing a test, getting fired from your job or your partner cheating on you. these sorts of dreams have something to do with our real life concerns


brain death

a condition which no part of the brain is functional but life support machines may keep vital organs going.
once taken off life support the person would no longer be alive



the brain still functions to an extent but the person still remains unconscious and unaware of their surroundings


persistent vegetative state

the person's conscious awareness ranges from none to minimal. but they remain almost completely unaware of themselves or their surroundings


permanent vegetative state

a person who has remained in a persistent vegetative state for more than 3 months. after another 3 months it is very rare for the person to recover.


minimally-conscious state

patients occasionally exhibit actions that suggest some minimal awareness. may be able to answer yes/no quesions


locked in state

the person is very aware of their surroundings yet are unable to do anything that would make appear conscious to others.
damage to the pons



state of high suggestibility
no magic or special powers


types of hypnotic suggestions

ideomotor suggestions: physical actions, the hypnotist tells the person that they are an animal such as a chicken

challenge suggestions: actions that cannot be perform, such as telling the person to move their arm

cognitive perceptual-suggestions: suggestions to remember or forget or alter their perception of reality. such as the hypnotist might suggest that the sun is beating down on the subject as they walk across the desert when they are really just on a stage.


hypnotherapy treats...

programs to quit smoking
eating disorders
acute pain


what are the two processing systems?

unconscious processing system: unconscious thoughts and guides our behaviors without the involvement of our conscious mind ex: riding a bike.

executive processing system: the conscious mind that maintains our awareness of events reflects critically about the current situation, and plans our behaviors.



altered state of consciousness that is more personal but many people say its equally dramatic.
heightened state of awareness through developing a calmer internal state


forms of meditation

focused-attention (FA) meditation:involves focusing attention on a single external or internal object, such as breathing or a candlelight flicker

open monitoring meditation: starts in FA meditation and proceeds to learning t attend to internal and external experiences in the moment without focusing on/judging any one aspect.


advantages of meditation

improves emotional and behavioral control
reduces personal anxieties about the past and future



any substance that we ingest for the purpose of effecting some aspect of our physiology and not for our nourishment or appetite



drugs that increase the amount of neurotransmitters available in the synapse between neurons



drugs that decrease the amount of neurotransmitters available in the synapse between neurons



effected by drugs such as cocaine or meth.
the release of dopamine in two key centers of the brain which are:
1. nucleus accumbens
2. ventral tegmental (VTA)


long term effects of psychoactive drugs

tolerance: a person has to increase doses of the drug to experience the same amount of high

withdrawal symptoms: negative side effects that occur after terminating regular use of a drug

physical dependence: unable to stop taking a drug because of the withdrawal symptom

psychological dependence: use of a drug to suppress negative psychological states ex: depression, rather than to avoid withdrawal symptoms



addicts have a challenge in overcoming stigma. stigmas are imposed by societies and communities that cause major discrimination and hurt.



increase nervous system activity and give a person pleasure ex: cocaine, caffeine, and ecstasy (MDMA)


hallucinogenic drugs

alter ones perception and can produce vividly d auditory, visual or tactile perceptions in the absence of any sensory input.
can be seen as dreams protruding from ones conscious experience while they are awake.
ex: LSD, magic mushrooms



has both stimulants and hallucinogenic and narcotic properties.
active ingredient is THC, which mimics the neurotransmitter, anandamide which stimulates feelings of euphoria and relaxation.



similar in chemical structure to a class of neurotransmitters called endorphins. opiates such as pain killers have potent painkilling effects and generate strong feelings of euphoria
ex: morphine, oxycodone.



opposite result of stimulants. reduce altertness and mental activity



increases the amount of GABA within synapses, dopamine and endorphin levels.


alcohol consumption is associated with a number of social problems

1. sexual assault
2. physical assault
3. intimate partner violence
4. unwanted pregnancy
5. STDs
6. automobile and workplace accidents


long term effects of alcohol

brain damage
liver problems