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Flashcards in Chapter 11 Deck (23):
1

alternative explanation

the existence of any systematic difference between groups other than the experimental variables that threaten internal validity

2

experimental variables

properties an experimenter can manipulate or expose people to

3

independent variable

the variable we believe to have a causal influence on our outcome variables

4

counterbalancing

varying the order of experimental conditions across participants in a repeated measures design // helps to assure internal validity + controls for possible contamination

5

failure of randomization

for any given study, it is possible that particular kinds of participants will not be evenly distributed across experimental conditions

6

random assignment

a way of assigning participants to the levels of the independent variable so that the groups do not differ as the study begins

7

randomized experiment

a research design in which individuals are randomly assigned to various levels of the independent variable

8

repeated measures design

rather than some participants being in one condition and some in the other, all participants are in both conditions

9

artifacts

an unintended effect on the dependent variable that is caused by some feature of the experimental setting other than the independent variable

10

construct validity

making sure that our variables capture the construct we wish to measure

11

differential mortality

when mortality rates are different for the various experimental groups // posing threat to internal validity

12

factorial design

design containing every possible combination of two or more independent variables

13

history

any event that is unrelated to the independent variable and yet could affect the dependent variable

14

instrumentation

any change that occurs over time in measurement procedures or devices

15

interaction effect

when the effect of one variable differs depending on the level of the other variable

16

main effect

the effect of one independent variable, ignoring the others

17

manipulated variable

when researchers create rather than measure levels of an independent variable

18

manipulation check

a measure of the independent variable construct after they have measured it

19

maturation

any naturally occurring process within persons that could cause a change in their behavior (i.e. fatigue, boredom, growth)

20

mortality

any attrition (gradual loss) of participants from a study

21

pretests

an additional set of tests or observations of the dependent variable before the experimental treatment

22

selection

any pre-existing differences between individuals in the different experimental conditions that can influence the dependent variable

23

selection by maturation

when there are differences between individuals in the treatment groups that produce changes in the groups at different rates