Flashcards in Chapter 11 - Conception, Pregnancy, and Childbirth Deck (76):
A fertilized ovum.
A procedure for drawing off and examining fetal cells in the amniotic fluid to determine the presence of various disorders in the fetus.
A chromosomal abnormality that leads to mental retardation, caused by an extra chromosome on the twenty-first pair.
The sudden, involuntary expulsion of the embryo or fetus from the uterus before it is capable of independent life. Also termed miscarriage.
A gelatinous layer that surrounds an ovum.
An enzyme that briefly things the zona pellucida, enabling one sperm to penetrate.
Inability to conceive a child.
Self-propulsion. A measure of the viability of sperm cells.
The production of antibodies that attack naturally occurring substances that are (incorrectly) recognized as being foreign or harmful.
An abnormal condition in which endometrial tissue is sloughed off into the abdominal cavity rather than out of the body during menstruation. The condition is characterized by abdominal pain and may cause infertility.
A medical proceed in which a long, narrow tube (laparoscope) is inserted through an incision in the navel , permitting the visual inspection of organs in the pelvic cavity.
A test in which carbon dioxide gas is blown through the cervix and its progress through the reproductive tract is tracked to determine whether of not the fallopian tubes are blocked.
A test in which a dye is injected into the reproductive tract and its progress is tracked by x-rays to determine whether or not the fallopian tubes are blocked.
In Vitro Fertilization (IVF)
A method of conception in which mature ova are surgically removed from an ovary and placed in a laboratory dish along with a sperm.
Gamete Intrafallopian Transfer (GIFT)
A method of conception in which sperm and ova are inserted into a fallopian tube to encourage conception.
Zygote Intrafallopian Transfer (ZIFT)
A method of conception in which an ovum is fertilized in a laboratory dish and then placed in a fallopian tube.
A variation of in vitro fertilisation in which the ovum is taken from one woman, fertilized, and then injected into the uterus or fallopian tube of another woman.
A method of conception in which a woman volunteer is artificially inseminated by the male partner of the intended mother, after which the embryo is removed from the volunteer and inserted within the uterus of the intended mother.
Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI)
A method of conception in which a single sperm is injected directly into an ovum.
Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (HCG)
A hormone produced by women shortly after conception, which stimulates the corpus letter to continue to produce progesterone. The presence of HCG in a woman's uterus indicates that she is pregnant.
Symptoms of pregnancy, including nausea, aversion to specific foods, and vomiting.
A spontaneous abortion.
The period of prenatal development before implantation in the uterus.
Period of the Ovum
A stage within the germinal stage of prenatal development, at which the embryo is a sphere of cells surrounding a cavity of fluid.
The platelike inner part of the blastocyst, which differentiates in the ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm of the embryo.
The outer part of the blastocyst, from which the amniotic sac, placenta, and umbilical cord develop.
The state of prenatal development that lasts from implantation through the either week and is characterized by the differentiation of the major organ systems.
From the head downward.
From the central axis of the body outward.
The outermost cell layer of the newly formed embryo, from which the skin and nervous system will develop.
A hollow area in the blastocyst from which the nervous system will develop.
The inner later of the newly formed embryo, from which the lungs and digestive system develop.
The central layer of the embryo, from which the bones and muscles develop.
The sac containing the fetus.
Fluid within the amniotic sac that suspends and protects the fetus.
An organ connected to the fetus by the umbilical cord. The placenta serves as a relay station between the mother and fetus, allowing the exchange of nutrients and wastes.
A tube that connects the fetus to the placenta.
Age of Viability
The age at which a fetus can sustain independent life.
Emergence of the baby head first from the wound.
Emergence of the baby bottom or feet first from the womb.
Environmental influences or agents that can damage an embryo or fetus.
Critical Period of Vulnerability
A period of time during which an embryo or fetus is vulnerable to the effects of a teratogen.
A viral infection that can cause mental retardation and heart disease in an embryo. Also called German measles.
A sexually transmitted bacterial infection.
The birth of a dead fetus.
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS)
A condition caused by HIV that destroys white blood cells in the immune system, leaving the body vulnerable to carious "opportunistic" diseases.
A life-threatening condition that is characterized by high blood pressure.
A pregnancy in which the fertilized ovum becomes implanted someplace other than the uterus.
A condition in which antibodies produced by a pregnancy woman are transmitted to the fetus and may cause brain damage or death.
An estrogen that was once given to women at risk for miscarriage to help maintain pregnancy.
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)
Cluster of symptoms caused by maternal drinking, in which the child shows developmental pages and characteristic facial features such as an underdeveloped upper jaw, flattened nose, and widely spaced eye.
A trait that is not expressed when the gene or genes involved have been paired with dominant genes. Recessive traits are transmitted to future generations, however, and are expressed if that are paired with other recessive genes.
A severe psychological disorder characterized by problems in thought, language, and perception.
So-called false labor contractions that are relatively painless.
Uterine hormones that stimulate uterine contractions.
A pituitary hormone that stimulates uterine contractions.
To become thin.
To open or widen.
The process during which the cervix becomes nearly fully dilated and the head of the fetus begins to move into the birth canal.
A surgical incision in the perineum that widens the birth canal, preventing random tearing during childbirth.
The area between the vulva and the anus.
The use of drugs to put people to sleep and eliminate pain, as during childbirth.
A typ of anesthesia that eliminates pain in a specific area of the body, as during childbirth.
A childbirth method in which women learn about childbirth, learn to relax and breathe in patterns that conserve energy and lessen pain, and have a coach (usually the father) present at childbirth. Also termed prepared childbirth.
A method of childbirth in which the fetus is delivered through a surgical incision in the abdomen.
A crosswise birth position.
Born before 37 weeks of gestation.
Substances that prevent the walls of the airways from sticking together.
Respiratory Distress Syndrom
A cluster of breathing problems, including weak and irregular breathing, to which preterm babies are especially vulnerable.
Postpartum Depression (PPD)
Persistent and severe mood changes during the postpartum period, involving feelings of despair and apathy and characterized by changes in appetite and sleep, low self-esteem, and difficulty concentrating.
A pituitary hormone that stimulates the production of milk.
Production of milk by the mammary glands.