Chapter 11 - Conception, Pregnancy, and Childbirth Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 11 - Conception, Pregnancy, and Childbirth Deck (76):
1

Zygote

A fertilized ovum.

2

Amniocentisis

A procedure for drawing off and examining fetal cells in the amniotic fluid to determine the presence of various disorders in the fetus.

3

Down Syndrome

A chromosomal abnormality that leads to mental retardation, caused by an extra chromosome on the twenty-first pair.

4

Spontaneous Abortion

The sudden, involuntary expulsion of the embryo or fetus from the uterus before it is capable of independent life. Also termed miscarriage.

5

Zona Pellucida

A gelatinous layer that surrounds an ovum.

6

Hyaluronidase

An enzyme that briefly things the zona pellucida, enabling one sperm to penetrate.

7

Infertility

Inability to conceive a child.

8

Motility

Self-propulsion. A measure of the viability of sperm cells.

9

Autoimmune Response

The production of antibodies that attack naturally occurring substances that are (incorrectly) recognized as being foreign or harmful.

10

Endometriosis

An abnormal condition in which endometrial tissue is sloughed off into the abdominal cavity rather than out of the body during menstruation. The condition is characterized by abdominal pain and may cause infertility.

11

Laparoscopy

A medical proceed in which a long, narrow tube (laparoscope) is inserted through an incision in the navel , permitting the visual inspection of organs in the pelvic cavity.

12

Rubin Test

A test in which carbon dioxide gas is blown through the cervix and its progress through the reproductive tract is tracked to determine whether of not the fallopian tubes are blocked.

13

Hysterosalpingogram

A test in which a dye is injected into the reproductive tract and its progress is tracked by x-rays to determine whether or not the fallopian tubes are blocked.

14

In Vitro Fertilization (IVF)

A method of conception in which mature ova are surgically removed from an ovary and placed in a laboratory dish along with a sperm.

15

Gamete Intrafallopian Transfer (GIFT)

A method of conception in which sperm and ova are inserted into a fallopian tube to encourage conception.

16

Zygote Intrafallopian Transfer (ZIFT)

A method of conception in which an ovum is fertilized in a laboratory dish and then placed in a fallopian tube.

17

Donor IVF

A variation of in vitro fertilisation in which the ovum is taken from one woman, fertilized, and then injected into the uterus or fallopian tube of another woman.

18

Embryonic Transfer

A method of conception in which a woman volunteer is artificially inseminated by the male partner of the intended mother, after which the embryo is removed from the volunteer and inserted within the uterus of the intended mother.

19

Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI)

A method of conception in which a single sperm is injected directly into an ovum.

20

Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (HCG)

A hormone produced by women shortly after conception, which stimulates the corpus letter to continue to produce progesterone. The presence of HCG in a woman's uterus indicates that she is pregnant.

21

Morning Sickness

Symptoms of pregnancy, including nausea, aversion to specific foods, and vomiting.

22

Miscarriage

A spontaneous abortion.

23

Germinal Stage

The period of prenatal development before implantation in the uterus.

24

Period of the Ovum

Germinal stage.

25

Blastocyst

A stage within the germinal stage of prenatal development, at which the embryo is a sphere of cells surrounding a cavity of fluid.

26

Embryonic Disk

The platelike inner part of the blastocyst, which differentiates in the ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm of the embryo.

27

Trophoblast

The outer part of the blastocyst, from which the amniotic sac, placenta, and umbilical cord develop.

28

Embryonic Stage

The state of prenatal development that lasts from implantation through the either week and is characterized by the differentiation of the major organ systems.

29

Cephalocaudal

From the head downward.

30

Proximodistal

From the central axis of the body outward.

31

Ectoderm

The outermost cell layer of the newly formed embryo, from which the skin and nervous system will develop.

32

Neural Tube

A hollow area in the blastocyst from which the nervous system will develop.

33

Endoderm

The inner later of the newly formed embryo, from which the lungs and digestive system develop.

34

Mesoderm

The central layer of the embryo, from which the bones and muscles develop.

35

Amniotic Sac

The sac containing the fetus.

36

Amniotic Fluid

Fluid within the amniotic sac that suspends and protects the fetus.

37

Placenta

An organ connected to the fetus by the umbilical cord. The placenta serves as a relay station between the mother and fetus, allowing the exchange of nutrients and wastes.

38

Umbilical Cord

A tube that connects the fetus to the placenta.

39

Age of Viability

The age at which a fetus can sustain independent life.

40

Cephalic Presentation

Emergence of the baby head first from the wound.

41

Breech Presentation

Emergence of the baby bottom or feet first from the womb.

42

Teratogens

Environmental influences or agents that can damage an embryo or fetus.

43

Critical Period of Vulnerability

A period of time during which an embryo or fetus is vulnerable to the effects of a teratogen.

44

Rubella

A viral infection that can cause mental retardation and heart disease in an embryo. Also called German measles.

45

Syphilis

A sexually transmitted bacterial infection.

46

Stillbirth

The birth of a dead fetus.

47

Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS)

A condition caused by HIV that destroys white blood cells in the immune system, leaving the body vulnerable to carious "opportunistic" diseases.

48

Toxemia

A life-threatening condition that is characterized by high blood pressure.

49

Ectopic Pregnancy

A pregnancy in which the fertilized ovum becomes implanted someplace other than the uterus.

50

Rh Incompatibility

A condition in which antibodies produced by a pregnancy woman are transmitted to the fetus and may cause brain damage or death.

51

DES (Diethylstilbestrol)

An estrogen that was once given to women at risk for miscarriage to help maintain pregnancy.

52

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)

Cluster of symptoms caused by maternal drinking, in which the child shows developmental pages and characteristic facial features such as an underdeveloped upper jaw, flattened nose, and widely spaced eye.

53

Recessive Trait

A trait that is not expressed when the gene or genes involved have been paired with dominant genes. Recessive traits are transmitted to future generations, however, and are expressed if that are paired with other recessive genes.

54

Schizophrenia

A severe psychological disorder characterized by problems in thought, language, and perception.

55

Braxton-Hicks Contractions

So-called false labor contractions that are relatively painless.

56

Prostaglandins

Uterine hormones that stimulate uterine contractions.

57

Oxytocin

A pituitary hormone that stimulates uterine contractions.

58

Efface

To become thin.

59

Dilate

To open or widen.

60

Transition

The process during which the cervix becomes nearly fully dilated and the head of the fetus begins to move into the birth canal.

61

Episiotomy

A surgical incision in the perineum that widens the birth canal, preventing random tearing during childbirth.

62

Perineum

The area between the vulva and the anus.

63

General Anesthesia

The use of drugs to put people to sleep and eliminate pain, as during childbirth.

64

Local Anesthesia

A typ of anesthesia that eliminates pain in a specific area of the body, as during childbirth.

65

Lamaze Method

A childbirth method in which women learn about childbirth, learn to relax and breathe in patterns that conserve energy and lessen pain, and have a coach (usually the father) present at childbirth. Also termed prepared childbirth.

66

Cesarean Section

A method of childbirth in which the fetus is delivered through a surgical incision in the abdomen.

67

Transverse Position

A crosswise birth position.

68

Anoxia

Oxygen deprivation.

69

Preterm

Born before 37 weeks of gestation.

70

Surfactant

Substances that prevent the walls of the airways from sticking together.

71

Respiratory Distress Syndrom

A cluster of breathing problems, including weak and irregular breathing, to which preterm babies are especially vulnerable.

72

Postpartum

Following birth

73

Postpartum Depression (PPD)

Persistent and severe mood changes during the postpartum period, involving feelings of despair and apathy and characterized by changes in appetite and sleep, low self-esteem, and difficulty concentrating.

74

Prolactin

A pituitary hormone that stimulates the production of milk.

75

Lactation

Production of milk by the mammary glands.

76

Lochia

A reddish vaginal discharge that may persist for a month after delivery.