Chapter 11 - Infection control Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 11 - Infection control Deck (26)
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1

Pathogen types

Bacteria
VIruses
Fungi
Prions
Parasites

2

Define virulence

Ability to invade and injure host

3

Describe Herpes Zoster

viral infection that can erupt years after chickenpox exposure. - invades nerve tract

4

Two types of immune defenses -

Nonspecific innate AND Specific adaptive

5

Two types of Nonspecific innate immunity?

Native immunity AND passive

6

Define native immunity?

Phagocytic cells, complement, and inflammation immediately respond to antigen exposure.

Occurs even if no previous exposure

7

Define passive immunity?

Antibodies given from external source (breastmilk)

8

What is the body's 1st line of defense against pathogens?

Skin

9

Define specific adaptive immunity?

Body makes antibodies in response to a particular antigen.

10

What are 4 aspects of an active specific adaptive immunity?

- Requires time to react to antigens
- Provides permanent immunity
- Involves B/T lymph
- Provides GMADE Abs

11

Routes of portal of exit?

Respiratory, GI, GU, Skin, membranes, Body fluids, transplacental

12

Organisms associated with GU portal of exit?

Hep A, E. Coli, HSV, HIV

13

Organisms associated with Skin/Membranes portal of exit?

HSV, Varicella

14

Organisms associated with Blood/body fluids portal of exit?

HIV, Hep B, Hep C

15

What are the 4 modes of transmission?

Contact
Droplet
Airborne
Vector

16

What are the 3 types of contact modes of transmission?

Direct - Person to person
Indirect - Object to person
Fecal/Oral - Handling food

17

What is the chain of infection?

Susceptible host
Causative agent
Reservoir
Portal of exit
Mode of transmission
Portal of entry

18

What are the stages of infection?

Incubation
Prodromal stage
Illness stage
Convalescence

19

Define incubation?

Interval between entry and 1st symptom

20

Define Prodromal stage?

Interval between - general finding onset and distinct findings

The pathogen multiples at this point

21

Define convalescence stage?

Interval when acute findings disappear (days to months depending on INF)

22

What are the 3 stages of inflammation?

Local infection - Red, warm, swelling, TTP
Exudate - Org killed byproducts
Tissue healing/scarring

23

Describe 3 types of exudate?

Serous - clear
Sanguineous - contains RBCs
Purulent - contains WBCs/bacteria

24

Common Lab tests for infection?

CBC - WBC >10k
ESR - >20mm/hr
Positive culture

25

Common Dx procedures for infection?

Gallium scan
Radioactive Gallium citrate
Biopsy
XR, CT, MRI

26

Two tiers of isolation guidelines?

Standard precautions (tier one)
Transmission precautions (tier two)