Chapter 12 Blood Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 12 Blood Deck (29):
1

___is a specialized connective tissue consisting of cells and fluid extracellular material called plasma

Blood

2

What constitute the formed elements circulating in the plasma?

Erythrocytes Leukocytes, and Platelets

3

_____contains growth factors and other proteins released from platelets during clot formation

Serum

4

___comprise the sedimented material and their volume,

Erythrocytes

5

44% of total blood volume in healthy adults is called

Hematocrit

6

Straw colored, translucent, slightly viscous supernatant comprising 55% of blood at the top half of a centrifugation tube is___

plasma

7

___is a thin gray-white layer between plasma and hematocrit consisting of leukocytes and platelets, both less dense than erythrocytes

Bufffy coat

8

Name 4 functions of blood

- distribute nutrients. hormones, and metabolites throughout the body
- heat distribution/regulation of body temperature
-maintenance of acid-base balance
-maintenance of osmotic balance

9

___is the most abundant plasma protein, made in the liver, and serves primarily to maintain the osmotic pressure of the blood

ALbumin

10

Give characteristics of Erythrocytes

-mature RBC's lack nuclei (lack all organelles)
-flexible
-biconcave shape
- densely filled with hemogllobin
-rely on anaerobic glycolysis for energy
- last 120 days
-produced in bone marrow

11

What benefits does the biconcave shape of red blood cells offer?

- large surface-to-volume ratio to facilitate gas exchange
-flexibility allows them to adapt to small diameters and turns of capillaries
-more foldable

12

____and___are the two cateogories of leukocytes

Granulocytes and Agranulocytes

13

What are characteristics of granulocytes?

- Azurophilic granules (lysosomes)
-specific granules (bind acid,basic, or netural stains)
- polymorphic nuclei
-nuclei contain lobes

14

What are characteristics of agranulocytes?

-lack specific granules
-contain azurophilic granules
- spherical nucleus
-non-lobulated nuclei

15

____causes leukocytes to rapidly accumulate where their defensive actions are specifically needed

chemotaxis

16

___constitue 50-70% of circulating leukocytes

mature neutrophils

17

___are usually the first leukocytes to arrive at site of infection

Neutrophils

18

Give characteristics of Neutrophils

-multilobed
-neutral stain between purple and pink
-granulocyte
major function: to kill and phagocytose bacteria

19

Give characteristics of Eosinophils

-bilobed
-stain red/dark pink
-granulocyte
Major function: kill parasites and modulate local inflammation

20

Give characteristic of Basophils

-biloobed or s shaped nucleus
-stain dark blue/purple
major function: modulate inflammation and release histamin during allergy

21

Give characteristics of Lymphocytes

-spherical nucleus
-agranulocyte
major function: effector and regulatory cells for adaptive immunity

22

Give characteristics of monocytes

-indented or C-shaped nucleus
-agranulocyte
major function: precursors of macrophages and other mononuclear phagocytic cells

23

When looking for eosinophils whats the major give away?

abundance of large,acidophilic specific granules that stain pink or red

24

_____is the most numerous type of agranulocyte in a normal blood smear

Lymphocytes

25

___is typically the smallest leukocytes

Lymphocytes

26

___ are precursors of osteoclasts,microglia, and other macrophages

Monocytes

27

Give characteristics of Platelets

- non-nucleated
-membrane bound cell fragments
- formed from bone marrow cells called megakaryocytes pinching off
- promote blood clotting
-repair tissue damage
-short life span of a few days

28

___is the name for when RBC's are stacked upon themselves

Rouleaux

29

Describe what occurs during the degradation and recycling of RBC's

-old RBC's get taken up by the spleen and liver
- Globin gets broken down to amino acids (to make new protein)
-Heme becomes bilirubin gives crap the brown color