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Flashcards in Chapter 13 Deck (45):
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social psychology

the scientific study of how we think about, influence, and relate to one another

1

attribution theory

the theory that we explain someones behavior by crediting either the situation or the persons disposition

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fundamental attribution error

the tendency for observers, when analyzing another's behavior, to underestimate the impact of the situation and to overestimate the impact of personal disposition

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attitude

feelings, often influenced by our beliefs, that predispose us to respond in a particular way to objects, people, and events

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peripheral route persuasion

occurs when people are influenced by incidental cues

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central route persuasion

occurs when interested people focus on the arguments and respond with favorable thoughts

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foot in the door phenomenon

the tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger request

7

role

a set of expectations about a social position, defining how those in the position ought to behave

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cognitive dissonance theory

the theory that we act to reduce the discomfort we feel when two of our thoughts are inconsistent

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culture

the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, values, and traditions shared by a group of people and transmitted from from one generation to the next

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norm

an understood rule for accepted and expected behavior

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conformity

adjusting our behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard

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normative social influence

influence resulting from a persons desire to gain approval or avoid disapproval

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social facilitation

improved performance on simple or well-learned tasks in the presence of others

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social loafing

the tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling their efforts toward attaining a common goal than when individually accountable

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deindividuation

the loss of self awareness and self-restraint occuring in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity

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group polarization

the enhancement of a group's prevailing inclinations through discussion within the group

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groupthink

the mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in a decision making group overrides a realistic appraisal of alternatives

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prejudice

an unjustifiable and usually negative attitude toward a group and its members

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stereotype

a generalized belief about a group of people

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discrimination

unjustifiable negative behavior toward a group and its members

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just world phenomenon

the tendency for people to believe the world is just and that people therefore get what they deserve and deserve what they get

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ingroup

"us"- people with whom we share a common identity

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outgroup

"them"- those perceived as different or apart from our ingroup

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ingroup bias

the tendency to favor our own group

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scapegoat theory

the theory that prejudice offers an outlet for anger by providing someone to blame

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other race effect

the tendency to recall faces of ones own race more accurately than faces of other races

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aggression

any physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt or destroy

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frustration aggression principle

the principle frustration that - the blocking of an attempt to achieve some goal - creates anger, which can generate aggression

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social script

culturally modeled guide for how to act in various situations

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mere exposure effect

the phenomenon that repeated exposure to novel stimuli increases liking of them

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passionate love

an aroused state of intense positive absorption in another, usually present at the beginning of a love relationship

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companionate love

the deep affectionate we feel for those with whom our lives are intertwined

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equity

a condition in which people receive from a relationship in proportion to what they give to it

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self disclosure

revealing intimate aspects of oneself to others

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altruism

unselfish regard for the welfare of others

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bystander effect

the tendency for any given bystander to be less likely to give aid if other bystanders are present

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social exchange theory

the theory that our social behavior is an exchange process, the aim of which is to maximize benefits and minimize costs

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reciprocity norm

an expectation that people will help those who have helped them

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social responsibility norm

an expectation that people will help those dependent upon them

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conflict

a perceived incompatibility of actions, goals, or ideas

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social trap

a situation in which the conflicting parties become caught in mutually destructive behavior

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mirror image perceptions

mutual views often held by conflicting people

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superordinate goals

shared goals that override differences among people and require their cooperation

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GRIT

(graduated and reciprocated initiatives in tension - reduction) a strategy designed to decrease international tensions