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Flashcards in Chapter 13 Pp Deck (41):
1

Plan your research

Learn about the subject
Target information gaps
Keep an open mind

2

Learn about the subject

Industry publications
Competitors websites
Interviews with experts
Online resources
Books and indexes
Problem statement

3

Problem statement

Defines the problem or purpose of your research (decision you need to make at the end of the process)

4

Prioritize research needs

Constraints :
Limited time
Limited resources

Information:
“Need to know “
“Nice to know”

5

Data and information

Secondary research
Primary research

6

Secondary research

Research materials previously created for another purpose

Start with secondary research

7

Primary research

New research done specifically for your current project
Ex: surveys, interviews, observations, experiments

8

Evaluating sources

Honesty and reliability
Potential bias
Purpose of the material
Authors credibility
Data collection methods
Independent verification
Timeliness
Completeness
Logic and good sense

9

Secondary research

Inside the company:
Company documents
Knowledge management systems

Outside the company:
Hardcopy resources
Online resources

10

Finding information at the library

Business books
Electronic databases
Newspapers
Periodicals
Directories
Almanacs
Statistical resources
Government publications

11

Four categories of periodicals

Popular magazines
Trade journals
Business magazines
Academic journals

12

Finding information online :
Search engines

No human editor
Different results
Is incomplete

13

Disadvantages of search engines that affect quality of research

Process search engines use to find lists of web pages has no human editors to evaluate quality

Can’t reach content in limited access collections (back issues of newspapers, magazines, and professional journals)

Might be able to find certain pages through one engine, but not another

14

Web directories

Use human editors to categorize and evaluate web sites

15

Metacrawlers or metasearch engines

Sends search request on multiple search engines and tells how many hits each engine was able to find you

16

Online databases

Offers access to newspapers, magazines; and journals you’re likely needing for many research projects

17

Documenting sources

Credit your sources
Support your message
Help your readers

18

Fahd use doctrine

Use other people’s work as long as you don’t prevent them from benefiting as a result

19

Documenting sources

Direct quotes
Specialized knowledge
Fair use doctrine
Paraphrased material
Common knowledge
Copyright law

20

Two most common primary research methods

Surveys
Interviews

21

Conducting surveys

Effective surveys use representative sample

Effective surveys are reliable and valid

22

Survey is reliable when

Produces identical results when repeated

23

Survey is valid when

It measures what its intended to

24

Effective questionnaire

Clear instructions
Short answer questions
Easy to analyze questions
No leading questions
Unambiguous questions
No compound questions
Adapt the survey

25

Types of questions

Open ended
Direct open ended
Restatement
Close ended

26

Open ended

offer opinions (lose control of interview, but not yes/no)

27

Close ended questions

Yes or no or short response
Less effort for interviewer, but might miss important information

28

Direct open ended

Suggest a response
Give you more control, give interviewee freedom in response

29

Restatement questions

Mirror a respondents previous answer and encourage expansion on answer .
Show you’re paying attention

30

Processing data and information

Quoting
Paraphrasing
Summarizing

31

Paraphrasing

Restatement in your own words
Maintain consistent feel
Avoids choppy sentences

32

Summarizing

Gist of material with fewer words than original
Identifies main idea, major support, leaves out most details

33

Analyzing the data

Mean, median, and mode
Overall trends
Cause and correlation
Cross- tabulation

34

Mean

Sum of all intend in group divided by number of items in that group

35

Median

Average or midpoint of series

36

Mode

Number that occurs most often in sample

37

Trend

Steady upward or downward movement in pattern of events

38

Causation

One factor causes the other to happen

39

Correlation

Simultaneous change in two variables that you’re measuring

40

Cross tabulation

Relationships between subsets of data
Looking separately at age, gender, location, product type, etc

41

Applying your findings

Unbiased summary
Logical conclusion
Recommendations