Chapter 1.3 (The Neuromuscular System) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 1.3 (The Neuromuscular System) Deck (17):

Define Aerobic

Literally means 'with oxygen' so refers to low to medium intensity exercise where the demand for oxygen can be met


Define Anaerobic

Means 'without oxygen' and refers to exercise at high intensity such as sprinting, where the demand for oxygen is so high it cannot be met


What are the 3 muscle fibre types?

- Slow oxidative (type I) (also known as slow twitch)
- Fast oxidative glycolytic (type IIa)
Fast glycolytic (type IIb)


What are the characteristics of slow twitch muscle fibres?

- Slower contraction speed
- Better adapted to lower intensity exercise
- Produce most of their energy aerobically


What are the characteristics of fast twitch muscle fibres?

- Faster contraction speed
- Generate a greater force of contraction
- Used for short, intense bursts of energy
- Produce most of their energy anaerobically


Define Hypertrophy

Where the muscle has become bigger and stronger


What is a Motor Unit?

A motor neurone and its muscle fibres


What are motor neurones?

Nerve cells which transmit the brains instructions as electrical impulses to the muscles


What are neuromuscular junctions?

Where the motor neurone and the muscle fibre meet


Define the All or None law

Where a sequence of impulses has to be of sufficient intensity to stimulate all of the muscle fibres in a motor unit in order for them to contract. If not, none of them contract


Define Wave Summation

Where there is a repeated nerve impulse with no time to relax so a smooth, sustained contraction occurs, rather than twitches


Define Tetanic Contraction

A sustained muscle contraction caused by a series of fast repeated stimuli


Define Spatial Summation

When the strength of a contraction changes by altering the number and size of the muscles motor units


What are muscle spindles?

These detect how far and how fast and muscle is being stretched and produce the stretch reflex


What are Golgi tendon organs?

These are activated when there is tension in a muscle


Define Isometric contraction

Where there is tension in a muscle but no visible movement


Define Autogenic inhibition and the receptor involved

Where there is a sudden relaxation of the muscle in response to high tension. The receptors involved are Goldi tendon organs