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Flashcards in Chapter 14 Deck (84):

A) What are the first-line defenses? [Figure 14.1]

bariers to protect inside of body from outside ie skin and mucous membranes


B) What are pattern recognition receptors and what do they do?

signaled after first line bariers are breached. This signal comes from endosomes and phagosomes in the area. These cells signal for back up


C) What is the complement system?

when activated protiens in blood stream signal and set off a chain of events to remove a microbe.


D) What is the inflammatory response and what happens during this response?

when blood vessels dialate and alow protiens and cells to leak into tissues


A) What are the bodies borders? [Figure 14.2]
do for you?

mucous membranes and skin


B) What is the surface of the body lined with? [Figure 14.3]

Dermis- ct tissue
Epidermis: outermost layer composed fo dead cells filled with Keratin( repels water) making a dry environment.


C) What lines the digestive tract?

mucous membranes


2) What is the mucociliary escalator?

cillia that line the respiratory tract and move mucous and bacteria up/out


D) What protects the the skin and mucous membrane? [Figure 14.4]

Antimicrobial subtances: salt, lysosomes, peroxidase
Normal Microbiota: propinobacteria, lactobacillus etc.


E) What are lysozymes?

enzyme that degrades peptidoglycan. in saliva, tears and mucous


F) What are peroxidase enzymes?

Kills catalase neg organisms by breaking down h2o2 to produce reactive oxygen. in milk and saliva


G) What is lactoferrin?

in saliva milk, and mucous. iron binding protien


H) What is transferrin?

in blood. binds to iron making iron unavailable for bacteria


I) What are defensins?

produced by neutrophils and epithelial cells. Short peptides that insert into bacteria membrane damaging cells.


K) What does the term normal microbiota mean? What do they

routinely grow in the body and provide protection


A) What is hematopoiesis? [Figure 14.5]

development of blood cells.Stem cell is differentiated by colony stimulatin factor( protiens that tell the stem cell what to become)


1) What is a hematopoietic stem cell?

what all blood cells originate/ differentiate from


2) What are erythrocytes?

red blood cells that carry 02


3) What are leukocytes? [Table 14.1]

white blood cells. Major role in immune response. Divided into 4 groups :
granulocytes , mononuclear phagocytes, dentritic cells, lymphocytes


B) What are granulocytes?

composed of neutrophils, basophils, and einsophils.

contain cytoplasmic granules filled with biological chemicals


1) What are neutrophils?

granulocyte, most common! they are phagocytes with antimicrobial and enzymes. found in tissues


2) What are basophils?

granulocyte, involved in inflamation because they release histamine which up capilarry permeability. Huge role in alergic response


3) What are mast cells?

cells similar to basophils. They are found in tissues rather than blood.


4) What are eosinophils?

rid body of parasites. contain antimicrobial substances, but also can reduce inflamation with histaminase that breaks down histamine


C) What are mononuclear phagocytes? [Figure 14.6]

consists fo monocytes and macrophages


1) What are monocytes?

circulate in blood until they differentiate and move into tissu: phagocytes


2) What are macrophages?

"setinel cell" present in almost all tissue and congregated in lymph node etc. :phagocytes


D) What are dendritic cells? What do they do?

"scouts" engulf foriegn cells and take them to cells of the adaptive immune system for inspection.


E) What are lymphocytes?

cosist of b and te cells and nk cells
contain generic pattern recognition


1) Where can you find B cells and T cells?

in lymph nodes


2) What are natural killer cells?

natural killer cells that have no specificity


A) What are surface receptors?

Surface receptors are protiens in the membrane that allow nnerworkings of the cell to sense and respond to external signals


1) What are ligands? What do they do?

external signals. molecules that fit to and bind to the receptors


B) What are cytokines? [Table 14.2]

"voices" cell release cytokins that bind to receptors


1) How do cytokine receptors help cytokines?

they allow the message to become action.


2) What do chemokines do?

huge role in chemotaxis of immune cells. when released calls to cells with that receptor to move to their location


3) What do colony-stimulating factors do?

the can cause cells to mulitply and differentiate betweeen different leukocytes


4) What do interferons do? [Antiviral activity of interferon video]

fights viral infections and induce inflamatory response


5) What do interleukines do?

produced by leukocytes. involved in adaptive and innate immunity


6) What does tumor necrosis factor?

kills tumour cells. initiates cell suicide and inflamatory responses


7) What do pro-inflammatory cytokines do?

they stimulate the t cells. contibute to inflamatory response and promote antibody reponses


C) What are adhesion molecules and what do they do?

sticky cell surface that allows cells to grab others. ex: epithelieal cells do this to pathogenic cells.


A) What are pathogen-associated molecular patterns?

patterns of stubstances that are common on all microbes.


B) What do danger-associated molecular patterns indicate and what recognizes them?

They indicate host cell damage . patern recognition receptos sense them


C) Where are toll-like receptors found and what do they do? [Figure 14.7 and Toll Like Receptors video]

They are anchored in sentinels cells. they dectect patterns /.
In phagosomal cells which help them characterize the material they ingested.


D) What do NOD-like receptors do? [Figure 14.8]

cytoplasmic protiens that detect other protiens and allows cells to know if their own border has been breached.


1) When do NOD-like receptors form inflammasomes?

when they detect pamps or damps.


E) What are RIG-like receptors and what do they do? [Figure 14.8]

cytoplamsic protiens that recognize viruses rna
They detect the viruses 3 phosphates at the five end.
also the rna is double stranded and replication generates long dsrna


1) When do cells secret interferons and what do interferons do? [Figure 14.9]

cells secrete interferons when virus is detected. they attatch to infected cells and those around it. they then release protiens that degrade mrna and stop protien synthesis. leading to apoptosis or cell death.


A) What is the compliment system? How can it be activated? [Figure 14.10 and Activation of Complement video]

Compliment system: Consists fo protiens that aide antibodies. It is activated by 3 different pathways that all converge at C3


1) What is C3 convertase?

compliment protien?


2) What are the three pathways that can activate the complement system?

Alternate pathway, Lectin Pathway, and Classical pathway


- How is the alternative pathway triggered?

quickly and easily triggered. Triggered when c3b binds to forien cell. this allows others to nimd forming c3 convertase.


How is the lectin pathway triggered?

when mannose binding lectins bind to certain arrangemnents of mannos that characterize microbial cells. then forms c3 convertase


- How is the classical pathway triggered?

requires antibodies. when antibody binds to antigen. then forms c3 convertase


3) What are the three outcomes of the activation of the complement system?

Osponization- "perpared for eating" osposonins make it wasier for phagocytes to attatch (c3b)
inflamatory response- C5a
lysis of foreign cells


3) What happens when C3b molecules bind to bacterial cells or foreign particles?



4) What happens in the inflammatory response?

C5 a chemoattractant that draws phagocytes to the area. C5a induces changes in blood vessels to up permiablility. Also causes the release of proinflamatory cytokines


5) What are membrane attack complexes and how are they formed? [Figure 14.11]

c5b- c9 assemble in cell membranes forming doughnust shaped structures. this creates pores in the membrane of the cell. has lil effect on gram positive cells


6) What control mechanisms do host cells have in regards to the compliment system? [Figure 14.7]

some bind to compliment protiens and inactivate them.
some bind to regulatory protiens so they triffer the alernative pathway


What is phagocytosis and how is it accomplished? [Figure 14.3 and Phagocytosis video]

cell engulfs and digests materials.


1) What happens during chemotaxis?

Phagocytic cells are recruited to site of infection my chemicals which attract the cells.


2) How do phagocytic cells bind invading microbes?
- What are opsonins?

use various receptors for binding. osponins are secreted protiens that tad particles for phagocytosis.


3) What is a phagosome and how is if formed?

when cell sends out pseudopods to surround and engulf material. this is pinched off and called a phagosome


4) How does a phagosome attain antimicrobial capabilities?

phagosomes will bind with endosomes allowing it to gain their property, and they can fuse with lysosomes


5) What is a phagolysosome?

phagosomes bound to lysosomes


6) How does a phagolysosome destroy and engulfed invader?

proton pumps which change ph, then some up o2 consumptoin forming a reactive oxygen, and some make nitric oxide


7) How does the cell rid itself of remains after digestion?

exocytosis: vessicle fuses with the plasma membran and expell remains.


B) What are macrophages?

scavengers/ sentries. phagocytes usually get rid of debrey. the are normally in the tissues, but can eat invaders and signal reinforcements


1) What are activated macrophages?

when their killing power is up. they sometimes require the help of t cells to activate them.


C) What are giant cells?

if macrophages cannot kill microbe they can fuse to eashother


D) What makes up a granuloma and what does it do?

giant cells and tc ells form granulomas. they form wall around microbes that cannot be destroyed


E) How do neutrophils help the body?

rapid response team: more effective than macrophages, but only last 1-2 days. they form nets


1) What are NETs and what do they do?

neutrophil extracellular traps: They release contents of their ganules as well as DNA . the DNA ensnares teh microbes and the granule contents(enzymes) accumulate within the net and kill the microbe.


A) What is inflammation?

response to damaged tissues. This is used to contain site of damage and localize response as well as restore tissue functions.


B) What are inflammatory mediators?

They are cytokines and other chemicals that initiate inflamation. histamine and bradykinnin


C) What two things can trigger the inflammatory process and how?

microbes: and tissue damage.When cells recognize PAMPs and cause cells to release inflamatory mediators.
Tissue Damage: DAMPs and PAMPs are recognized. causes cells to release inflamatory mediators


D) What occurs during the inflammatory process? [Figure 14.14 and Inflammatory Res video]

inflamatory mediatos are released
Neutrophils arrive on site
and then other phagocytes destroy and remove invaders.
then as infection is brought under control macrophages come in to clean up.


1) What is acute inflammation?

short term inflamatory response. marked by prevelance of a lot of neutorphils.


2) What is chronic inflammation?

long term inflamatory processmacrophages and giant cells acculmulate to form granulomas


3) What are some of the damaging effects of inflammation?

enzymes and toxins release by phagocytic cells can damage tissue.


E) What is apoptosis? When and how does it occur?

"off falling" programed cell death. this can result in changes like shape of cell, dna is btchered,.


A) What is the function of fever in a host?

fever is a result of pro inflamatory cytokines. when these reach the brain it causes the brain to set the thermostat higher. higher temp can affect growth rate of infection


2) What are pyrogens?

fever inducing substances