Flashcards in Chapter 6 Deck (61):
A) What is the relationship between catabolism and anabolism? [Figure 6.1]
They work together and they compose metabolism
B) What is the process of catabolism?
Breaking down molecules and releasing energy
C) What is the process of anabolism?
Making molecules – requires atp
D) What is energy? [Figure 6.2]
Capacity to do work
1) How do photosynthetic organisms get energy?
They use the sunlight to harvest energy and use it to power synthesis of organic compounds
2) How do chemoorganotrophs get energy? [figure 6.3]
Get energy by degrading organic compounds
E) What is the difference between an exergonic and endergonic reactions? \
Exergonic = releases energy Endo= uses energy
F) What is a metabolic pathway? [Figure 6.4]
Sequence of chem reactions that converts a compound to an end product
1) What are enzymes? What is the substrate?
Enzymes are protiens that function as catalysts. Substrate is the first substance that is converted into another
2) What is the activation energy? [Figure 6.5]
E it takes to start a reaction
3) What are ATP and ADP and what are they used for? [Figure 6.6]
Donor of free energy= atp (ribose, adenine, and three phosphates Adp is same with only 2 phosphates and it accepts electrons.
4) What happens during substrate-level phosphorylation and oxidative phosphorylation?
Substrate lvl: energy from exergonic reactions uses e released to phosphorylate adp
Oxidative phosphorylation: uses proton force from the gradient due to elect. Transport chain to take adp to atp.
5) What is photophosphorylation?
Uses the proton gradient from elect transport chain…powered via sun
6) What is the energy source and the terminal electron acceptor? [Figure 6.7]
Source is the one that is elecrtron donor. Termincal is the electron acceptor.
7) What are redox reactions? How are they involved in metabolic pathways? [Figure 6.8]
Substance that looses reaction is then oxidized and the one that receives he reduction is reduced
8) What are the electron carriers? What do they do? [Table 6.1]
NAD, FAD,NADP They accept and donate electrons
9) What are the precursor metabolites and what is their role? [Table 6.2]
Serve as carbon skeletons in which macromolecules can be made
Made via glycolysis
Dihyxroitonaceton phosphate: lipids
3 phoshpoglycerate- proteins aa’s cysteine glycine and serine
Phosphoenol pyruvate- aa’s tryp tophan tyrosine and phynalalaine
Pyruvate- aa’s alanine, lucine, and valine
Pentose Phosphate Cycle 9 precurser metabolites)
Ribose 5 phosphate- nucleic acids and protiens
Erythrose 4 phosphate- aa’s tryptophan tyrosine and phynalalaine
Acetyl CoA- lipids
Alpha ketoglutarate- aa’s glutamate, glutamine,prolineil
10) What is the metabolic highway? [Figure 6.9]
Gluclose entering cell will have different pathways/ destinations
A) What are the two processes in oxidative phosphorylation?
1) using elect. trans. chain to make proton gradient
2)using aptase to make atp
B) What is the chemiosmotic theory?
theory that elect. trans chain is part of atp production
C) What is the electron transport chain?
membrane embeded electron carriers that pass electrons to each other, ejecting protons in the process
1) How can a ball going down stairs be likened to the energy transfer in the ETC? [Figure 6.18]
energy is gradually released as the electrons are passed down the chain energy is release via protons being ejected
2) What are the three groups of electron carriers? What are their characteristics?
qiunones: lipid soluble organic molec. ,move freely in membrane and transfers electrons from one complex to another.
Cytochromes: proteins that contain heme
Flavoprotines: derived from vitamin riboflavin. Proteins which flavin is attatched (fad)
3) How is a proton gradient established across the membrane?
some carriers only accept the elect from the H and so ejects protons out of the membrane.
4) What are the four protein complexes of the ETC and what are their characteristics? [Figure 6.19]
1. (NADH hydrogenase complex) accepts nadh electrons and transfers them to ubiqoine and in the process releases 4 protons
2. (Succinate Dehydroginase) accepts electrons from fadh2 (formed during oxidation of succinate in the TCA cycle) this releases protons and elect. are transfered to ubiquine
3. accepts elect from ubiquine and pumps our 4 hydrogens in process of transfering elect to cytochrome c.
4.(cytochrome c oxidase complex) takes electrons from cytochrome c , pumping our 2 protons, and then it transfers elect to terminal elect acceptor
5) What are the similarities and differences between the ETC of a eukaryote and E.coli growing aerobically? [Figure 6.20]
Ecoli a prokaryote is unique in that it can work aerobically and anaerobically.
6) What are the similarities and differences between the ETC of an anaerobic and aerobic bacteria?
Aerobic: uses o2 as electron acceptor in high o2 conditions produces 4 protons, and low produces 2protons
Anaerobic: harvests less energy because other elect. acceptors have lover affinity for elect
D) How is ATP yield calculated?
2.5 or 3 atp produces per nadh and 1.5 or 2 atp produced via fadh2.
transition: 6 atp
TCA: 18 ( from nadh) plus 2 from the 2 fadh2
1) What is the ATP yield from oxidative phosphorylation? How much from each step?
6 from glygolysis
6 from transition step
22 from tca
2) What is the ATP yield from aerobic respiration in a prokaryotic cell? How much per step? [Figure 6.21]
4 from substrare phophorylation plus
34 from oxidative phosphorylation
A) What type of organisms use fermentation?
1) What are fermentations only ATP-generating steps?
ones that do not have elect. trans. chain.
only part that generates atp is glycolysis
2) Why are the end products of fermentation significant? What are the end products?[Figure 6.23]
they are comercially useful!
lactic acid, ethanol, butyric acid, propionic acid, mixed acids and butanediol
A) What can be used as an energy source besides glucose? How are they broken down? What do they yield? [Figure 6.24]
polysacharide:amylases, cellulases and disacharideases into mono sacharides
lipids: lipases into glycerol and fatty acids. glycerol can be broken in glycolysis. and fatty acids are oxidized and produce acetyl coa which enters tca cycle
proteins: protienases into animo acids which are deanimated into carbon structures used to help make percurser molecules.
B) What are the 4 chemolithotroph
groups and what are their characteristics? [Table 6.7]
Hydrogen Bacteria: oxidize h gas
Sulfer Bacteria:oxidize hydrogen sulfide
Iron bacteria:oxidize reduced forms of iron
Nitrifying bacteria:one oxidizes ammonia into nitrite and others take nitrite into nitrate
C) What kind of environments can chemolithotrophs be found?
extract elect. from inorganic molecules and they live in areas that this molecule is dense.
A) What is photosynthesis?
1) What happens during the light reactions?
conversion of radiant energy into chemical.
light dependant: catch radiant energy and convert it into chem energy in form of atp
2) What happens during the dark or light independent reactions?
dark: takes atp to synthesize org compounds
B) Review Table 6.8
C) What is the function of the pigments in photosynthetic organisms?
pigments help provide a range of wave lengths absorbed
1) What are photosystems? What do they do? [Figure 6.25]
where pigments are stored and are housed in photosynthetic membrane. specialized to caupture the e of light
2) What are chlorophylls and where are they found?
found in photosystems. they are photopigments in plants algea and photobacteria
3) What do bacteriochlorophylls do and where are they found?
anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteriaabsorbe wavelength chloraphyll cannot
4) What are accessory pigments and where are they found?
increase efficiency of light capture by absorbing wavelengths others cannot. inclued carastaniods ansd red algea
5) What do reaction-center pigments and antennae pigments do?
reaction: electron donors in photosynthetic process where when excited by radiant energy they emit electrons into etc
antenae: act as funnel capturing e of light and transfering it to reaction center
D) What is a possible explanation for the similarity between chloroplast structure and cyanobacteria?
the choroplasts evolved from cyanobacteria
E) What is the process of photophosphorylation?
use radiant e to fuel atp
F) What do each of the two photosystems do and how do they work in tandem? [Figure 6.26]
Photosystem 1: takes the energy of light causes emision of electrons and then the electrons, and then tranfered to etc then in chain are transfered to proton pump and then the electrons are returned to photosystem 1.
photosystem 2: takes e of light to strip elect. from h2o so they cam power phosphoryation
1) What is cyclic photophosphorylation? What is non-cyclic photophosphorylation and how do they differ?
Cyclic is when photosystem 1 is used and it is called a cycle because the elect donor and acceptor is the same… aka it cycles back.
Non cyclic: photosystem 1 doesn’t pass to the elect pump, but used to make nadph ( because that the proton pump was not donated electrons photosystem 2 comes in. It takes e from light and uses it to excite electrons stripped from water so then can get enough e to phosphorylate atp
G) How do purple bacteria and green bacteria do photosynthesis?
Purple uses a system like photosystem 2, but it cannot produce enough e to make nadh and so it has different system for that called reverse etc system.
Green: similar to photosystem 1, but along with ability to generate proton force it can also reduce nadh
A) What is carbon fixation? Which organisms use it?
`chemoliphautotrophs and photoautotrophs.
use cos to produce organic compounds
B) What is the Calvin cycle? What happens during each of the three stages? What is the yield?
Stage 1: co2 enters cycle and is joined with ribulous (5c) with the help of enzyme rubisco. Then the molecule hydrolyzes forming2 3 carbon compounds
Stage 2: atp and nadph and convert the 3 carbon compounds into G3P
Stage 3: Many steps used to regenerate Ru Pb
A) Why are some organisms considered fastidious?
when they do not have enzymes to break down their e source and so they rely on their environment to provide the nutrients they need.
C) What does the synthesis of most lipids require?
requires fatty acids and glycerol
D) How many different amino acids make up proteins?
E) Why is glutamate especially important for protein synthesis? How is it synthesized? [Figure 6.29]
it helps bacteria convert the N into organic material.
synthesized via amonia added to alpha ketoglutarate in the tca cycle
F) How are aromatic amino acids synthesized? Give examples of aromatic amino acids. [Figure 6.30]
tyrosine, tryptophan, and phenylalanine.
This is synthesized by first taking 2 precurser metabolites(phospholenolpyruvate and erythrose) then it forms a 7 cabon compound. Then in being synthesized it reaches a branch where it can wither produce tryptophand, or the other branch either phenylananine and tyrosine
1) How does the cell stop synthesizing the product of only one branch?
feed back inhibitor
G) What are nucleotides composed of? What is the difference between the ones in DNA and RNA?
nucleobase, 5 carbon sugar, and a phosphate group.