Chapter 14: An Introduction to Host Defenses Flashcards Preview

Microbiology > Chapter 14: An Introduction to Host Defenses > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 14: An Introduction to Host Defenses Deck (44)
Loading flashcards...
1

Innate, natural defenses

Present at birth, provide nonspecific resistance to infection

2

Adaptive immunities

Specific, must be aquired

3

First line of defense

Any barrier that blocks invasion at the portal of entry, nonspecific

4

Second line of defense

Protective cells and fluids, inflammation and phagocytosis, nonspecific

5

Third line of defense

Acquired with exposure to foreign substance, produces protective antibodies and creates memory cells, specific
-B and T killer cells

6

Lysozome

An enzyme that hydrolyzes the cell wall of bacteria, in tears

7

Immunology

The study of the body's second and third lines of defense

8

Functions of a healthy functioning immune system

1. Surveillance of the body
2. Recognition of foreign material
3. Destruction of entities deemed to be foreign

9

Immune system

Large, complex and diffuse network of cells and fluids that penetrate into every organ and tissue

10

Three major subdivisions of immune system


1. Extracellular fluid (ECF)
2. Bloodstream
3. Lymphatic system

11

White blood cells (leukocytes)

Innate capacity to recognize and differentiate any foreign material

12

Nonself vs self

Foreign material is nonself, self is normal cells of the body

13

Pathogen-associated patterns (PAMPs)

Molecules shared by microorganisms

14

Pathogen recognition receptors (PRRs)

Receptors of WBCs for PAMPs

15

Serum

Liquid portion of the blood after a clot has formed, minus clotting factors

16

Plasma

92% water, metabolic proteins, globulins, clotting factors, hormones, and all other chemicals and gases to support normal physiological functions

17

Hemopoiesis

Production of blood cells

18

Stem cells

Undifferentiated c ells, precursor of new blood cells

19

Granulocytes

Lobed nucleus, WBC's

20

Agranulocytes

Unlobed, rounded nucleus WBC's

21

Nuetrophils

55-90%, lobed nuclei with lavender granules, phagocytes

22

Eosinophils

1-3%, orange granules and bilobed nucleus, destroy eukaryotic pathogens

23

Basophils

.5%, constricted nuclei, dark blue granules, release portent chemical mediators

24

Mast cells

nonmotile elements bound to connective tissue

25

Lymphocytes

20 - 35%, specific immune response

26

Lymphocytes - B (humoral immunity)

activated B cells produce antibodies

27

Lymphocytes - T cells (cell-mediated immunity)

activated T cells modulate immune functions and kill foreign cells

28

Monocytes, macrophages

3 - 7% largest of WBCs, kidney-shaped nucleus; phagocytic

29

Monocytes - Macrophages

final differentiation of monocytes

30

Monocytes - Dendritic cells

trap pathogens and participate in immune reactions