Chapter 15 & 16: Adaptive, Specific Immunity and Immunization Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 15 & 16: Adaptive, Specific Immunity and Immunization Deck (45)
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1

Antigen

Molecule that stimulate an immune response by a T and B cells (specific lymphocytes)

2

Specificity

Antibodies produced, function only against the antigen that they were produced in response to

3

Memory

Lymphocytes are programmed to 'recall' their first encounter with an antigen and respond rapidly to subsequent encounters

4

Major functions of receptors are?

1. To perceive and attach to non self or foreign molecules
2. To promote the recognition of self molecules
3. To receive and transmit chemical messages among other cells of the system
4. To aid in cellular development

5

Receptors are found on all cells except?

RBSs (Red Blood Cells)

6

Class I

Markers that display unique characteristics of self molecules and regulation of immune reactions
-Required for T lymphocytes

7

Class II

Regulatory receptors found on macrophages, dendritic cells, and B cells
-Involved in presenting antigen to T-cells

8

B-cell receptors

Bind free antigens

9

T-cell receptors

Bind processed antigens together with the MHC molecules on the cells that present antigens to them

10

Immunoglobulins

Large glycoproteins that serve as specific receptors of B cells
-Composed of 4 polypeptide chains: 2 identical heavy chains (H), 2 identical light chains (L)
-Y shaped arrangement

11

B-cell maturation

Directed by BONE marrow sites that harbor stromal cells, which nurture the lymphocyte stem cells and provide hormonal signals
-Millions "home" to specific sites in lymph nodes, spleen and GALT

12

T-cell maturation

Maturation is directed by the THYMUS gland and it's hormones
-Different classes of T-cell receptors termed CD (Cluster of differentiation)

13

Cluster of differentiation (T-cell maturation)

CD4: T-helper cells
CD8: T-toxic killer cells

14

Epitope

Small molecular group that is recognized by lymphocytes, antigenic determinant

15

Haptens

Small foreign molecules that consist only of a determinant group
-Not antigenic unless attached to a larger carrier

16

Alloantigens

Cell surface markers and molecules that occur in some members of the same species but not others

17

Superantigens

Potent T cell simulators, provoke an overwhelming response

18

Allergen

Antigen that evokes allergic reactions

19

Autoantigens

Molecules on self tissues for which tolerance is inadequate

20

Opsonization

Process of coating microorganisms or other particles with specific antibodies so they are more readily recognized by phagocytes

21

Nuetralization

Abs fill the surface receptors on a virus or the active site on a microbial enzyme to prevent it from attaching

22

IgG (Immunoglobulin)

Monomer, produced by plasma cells (primary response) and memory cells (secondary), most prevalent

23

IgA (Immunoglobulin)

Monomer circulates in blood, dimer in mucous and serous secretions

24

IgM (Immunoglobulin)

Five monomers, first class synthesized following Ag encounter

25

IgD (Immunoglobulin)

Monomer, serves as a receptor for antigen on B cells

26

IgE (Immunoglobulin)

Involved in allergic responses and parasitic worm infections

27

Agglutination

Ab aggregation, cross-linking cells or particles into large clumps

28

Complement fixation

Activation of the classical complement pathway can result in the specific rupturing of cells and some viruses

29

Precipitation

Aggregation of particulate antigen

30

All antibodies in the IgA class...?

Have identical Fc regions. (Immunoglobulin)